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Over 40 European Projects Found

Searched on 125080 European Projects

 ONGOING 

Regulation and function of linear ubiquitination by HOIP (LUbi)

Start date: Jul 1, 2014, End date: Jun 30, 2019,

Ubiquitin (Ub) is a small protein modifier, regulating diverse biological functions such as signalling, DNA repair and proteasomal degradation. Ub can form polymers via 7 Lys residues of Ub itself. Recently, we have discovered that an E3 ligase complex, Linear Ubiquitin chain Assembly Complex (LUBAC) generates a novel type of Ub polymer linked via Met-1, ‘linear Ub chain’ and regulates NF-kB sign ...
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 FINISHED 

The Cellular and Molecular Basis of Magnetoreception (CeMoMagneto)

Start date: Apr 1, 2014, End date: Mar 31, 2019,

Each year millions of animals undertake remarkable migratory journeys, across oceans and through hemispheres, guided by the Earth’s magnetic field. The cellular and molecular basis of this enigmatic sense, known as magnetoreception, remains an unsolved scientific mystery. One hypothesis that attempts to explain the basis of this sensory faculty is known as the magnetite theory of magnetoreception. ...
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Molecular Characterization of the microRNA Life-Cycle (miRLIFE)

Start date: Feb 1, 2014, End date: Jan 31, 2019,

Small silencing RNAs regulate gene expression in nearly all eukaryotes and have enormous biotechnological and therapeutic potential. MicroRNAs belong to the larges family of trans-acting gene regulatory molecules in multicellular organisms. In flies and mammals, they control more than half of the protein-coding transcriptome, and act as key regulators of organismal development, physiology, and dis ...
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Spatio-temporal specificity of miRNA function (mirspecificity)

Start date: Feb 1, 2014, End date: Jan 31, 2019,

MicroRNAs are versatile regulators of gene expression and as such, they are essential parts of the gene regulatory networks controlling development and physiology of animals and plants. In particular, a number of miRNAs have been implicated in cell-type differentiation. Adding miRNAs to existing networks in particular subsets of cells can increase the complexity of developmental programs, and thus ...
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One of the most dramatic transitions in biology is the oocyte-to-zygote transition. This refers to the maturation of the female germ cell or oocyte, which undergoes two rounds of meiotic chromosome segregation and, following fertilization, is converted to a mitotically dividing embryo. We aim to establish an innovative research program that addresses fundamental questions about the molecular pro ...
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"Some organisms such as yeast or social insects are haploid, i.e. they carry a single set of chromosomes. Organisms with a single copy of their genome provide a basis for genetic analyses where any recessive mutation of essential genes will show a clear phenotype due to the absence of a second gene copy. Recessive genetic screens have markedly contributed to our understanding of normal development ...
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Recent advances in genome sequencing illustrate the complexity, heterogeneity and plasticity of cancer genomes. In leukemia - a group of blood cancers affecting 300,000 new patients every year – we know over 100 driver mutations. This genetic complexity poses a daunting challenge for the development of targeted therapies and highlights the urgent need for evaluating them in combination. One gene c ...
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Circuit mechanics of emotions in the limbic system (EmotionCircuits)

Start date: Jan 1, 2013, End date: Dec 31, 2017,

Numerous studies established the role of the limbic system in fear and reward: it integrates sensory information, encodes emotional states and instructs other brain centers to regulate physiology and behavior. The limbic system, however, consists of many distinct and highly interconnected neuronal populations. Resolving how emotions are processed in this network at the level of single neural circu ...
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The brain of a fly is capable of steering the animal through a complex environment at high relative speeds, avoiding stationary obstacles and moving predators. Because it is relatively easy to study how flies do this at several levels, from the behavioral to the cellular, fly vision has long been recognized as an ideal system to address a fundamental question in neuroscience- how does the distribu ...
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An animal’s decision on how to respond to the environment is based not only on the sensory information available, but further depends on internal factors such as stress, sleep / wakefulness, hunger / satiety and experience. Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the brain modulate neural circuits accordingly so that appropriate behaviors are generated. Aberrant neuromodulation is implicated in dis ...
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Acquired immunity to foreign pathogens depends on functional B and T cells. The objective of this proposal is to elucidate the transcriptional control of lymphocyte development at three stages by deciphering the transcriptional networks specifying pro-B and pro-T cells in early lymphopoiesis and plasma cells in terminal B cell differentiation.To this end, we generated knock-in mice carrying a biot ...
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 FINISHED 
Limb regeneration capacity varies among vertebrates, ranging from full regeneration in salamanders, to stage-restricted premetamorphic regeneration in frogs, to finger-tip regeneration in newborn mice and humans.The molecular and cellular basis for these differences in regeneration ability is not known and it is still unclear if these different regenerative events are tied by some common mechanism ...
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"Cell division underlies the growth and development of all living organisms. Following partitioning of bulk cytoplasmic contents by cleavage furrow ingression, dividing animal cells split by a distinct process termed abscission. Whereas a number of factors required for abscission have been identified in previous studies, it is not known by which mechanism they mediate fission of the intercellular ...
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The immune system plays a major role in safeguarding us from cancer. Tumor progression is closely linked to functional suppression of T cell responses, and strategies to reactivate tumor-specific CD8+ T cells hold great promise for cancer therapy, as evidenced by recent clinical breakthroughs. However, the further exploration of such therapies is hampered by our incomplete understanding of key gen ...
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Epigenetics towards systems biology (EPIGENESYS)

Start date: Oct 1, 2010, End date: Mar 31, 2016,

The ‘EpiGeneSys’ Network of Excellence aims to enable European epigenetics research to enter the arena of systems biology, a new step forward with major implications for human health. Many diseases, not explained solely by gene mutation, have rather been associated with epigenetic disorders. Following the identification of key epigenetic regulators, a move towards a systems biology approach is nee ...
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Emotions are a central part of our mental self and health, playing a crucial role in guiding behaviors essential for survival. For instance, threats evoke fear and avoidance behaviors; conversely, rewards induce reward-states and approach behaviors. Resolving how the variety of emotions emerges in the brain remains a major challenge for modern neuroscience. The main objective of the proposed resea ...
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The Notch pathway regulates numerous cell fate decisions throughout the development of a multicellular organism. One well-characterized Notch-dependent differentiation process is the development of T cells. Notch functions as the T lineage commitment factor at the early stages of differentiation and is required for survival, proliferation and further developmental progression later on. Although th ...
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Apelin inhibition as an anti-cancer therapy (APELIN THERAPY)

Start date: Feb 1, 2014, End date: Jan 31, 2016,

The spread of cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout Europe and beyond. As the growth of solid tumours is dependent on the formation of a neovascular supply, inhibition of tumour-induced neoangiogenesis represents an actively pursued strategy to treat human cancers. Current anti-angiogenic therapies are, however, hampered by the onset of resistance through upregulation of ad ...
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Understanding how the brain works represents one of the greatest challenges in modern science. This question embraces mechanisms spanning multiple levels of description, from genes to biochemical pathways, from neurons to circuits, from circuit activities to adaptive behaviours. The goal of the FLiACT programme is to train young researchers in the concepts and techniques necessary to study integra ...
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 FINISHED 
Biological processes occur in space and time, but current experimental methods for systems biology are limited in their ability to resolve this spatiotemporal complexity of life. In addition, traditional “omics” methods often suffer from limited sensitivity and need to average over populations of cells at the expense of cell to cell variation. Next-generation systems biology therefore requires met ...
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The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized biology. As a technology it opened up new experimental and therapeutic avenues. As a biological phenomenon it changed our view on a diverse array of cellular processes. Among those are the control of gene expression, the suppression of viral replication, the formation of heterochromatin and the protection of the genome against selfish gen ...
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Neurogenesis in the mammalian neocortex depends upon asymmetric cell divisions to maintain a balance between self-renewal and neuronal differentiation. This process is likely a key element governing the expansion of the human cerebral cortex, and its disruption can lead to severe developmental disorders such as microcephaly and lissencephaly. However, mechanisms of asymmetric cell division in mamm ...
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death and has the lowest survival rate of all major cancers (3-5%). Despite our advanced understanding of disease pathology and underlying genetics, there are no effective chemotherapeutic or targeted treatment options, and the median survival time remains unchanged at only 6 months. PDAC arises from complex and heteroge ...
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Systems Biology of Mitosis (MitoSys)

Start date: Jun 1, 2010, End date: May 31, 2015,

"MitoSys will generate a comprehensive mathematical understanding of mitotic division in human cells, a process of fundamental importance for human health. To create the critical mass and multidisciplinarity that is needed to achieve this ambitious goal, internationally leading mathematicians, biochemists/biophysicists and biologists working at twelve universities, research institutes, internation ...
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 FINISHED 

Genetic and Epigenetic Networks in Cognitive Dysfunction (GENCODYS)

Start date: May 1, 2010, End date: Apr 30, 2015,

Mutations in about 400 different genes have been associated with Cognitive Disorders (CD), such as mental retardation, autism, neurodegenerative disorders, and psychiatric disorders. Whereas CD impose a major medical and socio-economical problem, there are no systematic studies that aim to provide insight into common mechanisms in CD. We propose a systems biology approach to gain insight into comm ...
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Regulatory Genomics in Drosophila (Regulatory Genomics)

Start date: Apr 1, 2010, End date: Mar 31, 2015,

A major goal of biology is to explain how gene regulatory information is encoded by the genome. To date, we cannot decipher this regulatory code, despite the cells ability to read it in natural and artificial sequence contexts, and in contrast to our detailed understanding of the genetic code, which allows us to seamlessly translate DNA into protein sequences. Here, I propose a regulatory genomics ...
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The aim of this proposal is to understand how self-renewal is controlled in neural stem cell lineages and how defects in this process can lead to the formation of brain tumors in model organisms. The system we use are Drosophila neuroblasts, stem cell like progenitors in the developing fly brain that undergo repeated rounds of asymmetric cell division. During each division, protein determinants ca ...
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While chromosomes fill the nuclear space as decondensed chromosome territories during interphase, they are dramatically re-structured into compact rod-shaped rigid bodies during mitosis. The aim of my work is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this cell cycle-dependent chromosome reorganization. Unlike previous studies, I plan to focus on a yet poorly characterized chromosomal domain ...
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Besides DNA mutations, cancers harbor complex aberrations of the epigenetic landscape, which are reversible and amenable to pharmacologic intervention. Therapeutic targeting of chromatin regulators has shown great promise in first clinical studies, and this has triggered a massive effort to explore this machinery in academic and pharmaceutical research. Recently, the bromodomain and extraterminal ...
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Genome sequencing initiated a new age in biology. Now, the emphasis is on the biological interpretation of the genome: zooming on the biological functioning of the gene-products, i.e. the proteins, emerging into a filed termed proteomics. Protein levels depend not only on mRNA levels, but also on translational controls & regulated degradation, making the measurement of expression at the protein le ...
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Meiotic recombination has underpinned plant breeding for the generation of new traits of agronomic, environmental and economic importance, although we still have little understanding of the controlling mechanisms involved in this process. We will combine approaches in genomics and systems biology to obtain a detailed understanding of the factors that control recombination and will provide a basis ...
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RNA directed DNA elimination in Tetrahymena (Tetrahymena)

Start date: Sep 1, 2008, End date: Dec 31, 2013,

Tetrahymena eliminates micronuclear-limited sequences from the developing macronucleus during sexual reproduction (DNA elimination). It is believed that the DNA to be eliminated is identified by their homology with ~28 nt small RNAs (scnRNAs) which are made by a RNAi-related mechanism. Detailed mechanisms as well as exact biological functions of the RNA-directed DNA elimination remain obscure. The ...
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"Cancer care will be revolutionized over the next decade by the introduction of novel therapeutics that target the underlying molecular mechanisms of the disease. With the advent of human genetics, a plethora of genes have been correlated with human diseases such as cancer the SNP maps. Since the sequences are now available, the next big challenge is to determine the function of these genes in the ...
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The ability of spindle microtubules of to interact dynamically with centromeric chromatin is a critical feature of chromosome segregation and ensures the faithful distribution of genetic material. Errors in this process lead to abnormal chromosome numbers and are a hallmark of cancer and birth defects. The kinetochore is the key cell division organelle that enables high fidelity transmission of ge ...
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Neural basis of Drosophila mating behaviours (Fru circuit)

Start date: Jul 1, 2009, End date: Sep 30, 2013,

How does information processing in neural circuits generate behaviour? Answering this question requires identifying each of the distinct neuronal types that contributes to a behaviour, defining their anatomy and connectivity, and establishing causal relationships between their activity, the activity of other neurons in the circuit, and the behaviour. Here, I propose such an analysis of the neural ...
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Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports a link between chronic inflammation and cancer and indicates a role for inflammatory cells in the initiation, progression and metastasis of malignancy. The objective of the collaborative integrated project INFLA-CARE is to structure a European collective of scientific and technological excellence in the field of ‘Inflammation & Cancer’ which will ...
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 22

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Viral infections are among the most frequent causes of human diseases and affect most people worldwide. While some viral diseases have been successfully combated, novel viral diseases like AIDS, SARS, avian influenza A H5N1, or the swine influenza A H1N1, have emerged over the last decades. Research aiming at elucidating mechanisms of viral infection and the involved immune response is, therefore, ...
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European Consortium for Systematic Stem Cell Biology (EUROSYSTEM)

Start date: Mar 1, 2008, End date: Aug 31, 2012,

EuroSyStem brings together elite European research teams to create a unique and world-leading programme in fundamental stem cell biology. By interconnecting complementary biological and computational expertise we will drive the generation of new knowledge on the characteristics of normal and abnormal stem cells. We will pave the way for application of systems methodology by measuring and modelling ...
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All eukaryotic genomes contain mobile genetic elements called transposons. They can be described as “endo-parasites” at the genomic level and come in a variety of classes including endogenous retroviruses. The uncontrolled spread of transposons to new genomic sites poses a serious threat, e.g. due to insertional mutagenesis. How the host functionally silences transposons remained mysterious for a ...
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"A Europe-wide consortium of experimental biologists, biomathematicians, biostatisticians, computer scientists and clinical scientists will team up to approach cell death pathways in health and disease, placing particular emphasis on cancer and AIDS. The consortium will create a unique database integrating existing and accumulating knowledge on lethal signal transduction pathways leading to apopto ...
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