Search for European Projects

30 European Projects Found

Searched on 125080 European Projects

 ONGOING 
During S-phase newly synthesized “sister” DNA molecules become physically connected. This sister chromatid cohesion resists the pulling forces of the mitotic spindle and thereby enables the bi-orientation and subsequent symmetrical segregation of chromosomes. Cohesion is mediated by ring-shaped cohesin complexes, which are thought to entrap sister DNA molecules topologically. In mammalian cells, c ...
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 ONGOING 
Cellular proteins are prone to misfolding and aggregation, particularly under harsh environmental conditions. To counteract this danger, all organisms from bacteria to humans evolved sophisticated protein quality control networks. The mechanisms employed in them tend to represent some of the most exciting biochemistry occurring in living cells.In Gram-positive bacteria, the key factors combating p ...
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 ONGOING 
A major goal in biology is to understand how gene regulatory information is encoded by the human genome and how it defines different gene expression programs and cell types. Enhancers are genomic elements that control transcription, yet despite their importance, only a minority of enhancers are known and functionally characterized. In particular, their activity changes during cellular signalling o ...
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 FINISHED 
The cohesin-complex mediates sister chromatid cohesion from S-phase until mitosis and is involved in the formation of higher-order chromatin structure. To fulfill these vital functions, cohesin is loaded and positioned in the genome by mechanisms that are only poorly understood. In vitro, loading of cohesin on DNA only requires ATP and a loading-complex formed by Scc2-Scc4, while loading in vivo o ...
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 FINISHED 

The Cellular and Molecular Basis of Magnetoreception (CeMoMagneto)

Start date: Apr 1, 2014, End date: Mar 31, 2019,

Each year millions of animals undertake remarkable migratory journeys, across oceans and through hemispheres, guided by the Earth’s magnetic field. The cellular and molecular basis of this enigmatic sense, known as magnetoreception, remains an unsolved scientific mystery. One hypothesis that attempts to explain the basis of this sensory faculty is known as the magnetite theory of magnetoreception. ...
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 FINISHED 

Spatio-temporal specificity of miRNA function (mirspecificity)

Start date: Feb 1, 2014, End date: Jan 31, 2019,

MicroRNAs are versatile regulators of gene expression and as such, they are essential parts of the gene regulatory networks controlling development and physiology of animals and plants. In particular, a number of miRNAs have been implicated in cell-type differentiation. Adding miRNAs to existing networks in particular subsets of cells can increase the complexity of developmental programs, and thus ...
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 FINISHED 
Recent advances in genome sequencing illustrate the complexity, heterogeneity and plasticity of cancer genomes. In leukemia - a group of blood cancers affecting 300,000 new patients every year – we know over 100 driver mutations. This genetic complexity poses a daunting challenge for the development of targeted therapies and highlights the urgent need for evaluating them in combination. One gene c ...
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 FINISHED 
The dynamic of neural computation is often studied in individual cells using inserted electrodes, or using low-resolution methods such as EEG. Functional fluorescent imaging has recently emerged as a powerful complementary tool that allows single-cell resolution of relatively large networks, opening a new regime to neuroscience. However, complex brains are generally opaque and can only be studied ...
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 FINISHED 

Circuit mechanics of emotions in the limbic system (EmotionCircuits)

Start date: Jan 1, 2013, End date: Dec 31, 2017,

Numerous studies established the role of the limbic system in fear and reward: it integrates sensory information, encodes emotional states and instructs other brain centers to regulate physiology and behavior. The limbic system, however, consists of many distinct and highly interconnected neuronal populations. Resolving how emotions are processed in this network at the level of single neural circu ...
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 FINISHED 
The brain of a fly is capable of steering the animal through a complex environment at high relative speeds, avoiding stationary obstacles and moving predators. Because it is relatively easy to study how flies do this at several levels, from the behavioral to the cellular, fly vision has long been recognized as an ideal system to address a fundamental question in neuroscience- how does the distribu ...
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 FINISHED 
An animal’s decision on how to respond to the environment is based not only on the sensory information available, but further depends on internal factors such as stress, sleep / wakefulness, hunger / satiety and experience. Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the brain modulate neural circuits accordingly so that appropriate behaviors are generated. Aberrant neuromodulation is implicated in dis ...
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 FINISHED 
Acquired immunity to foreign pathogens depends on functional B and T cells. The objective of this proposal is to elucidate the transcriptional control of lymphocyte development at three stages by deciphering the transcriptional networks specifying pro-B and pro-T cells in early lymphopoiesis and plasma cells in terminal B cell differentiation.To this end, we generated knock-in mice carrying a biot ...
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 FINISHED 
Limb regeneration capacity varies among vertebrates, ranging from full regeneration in salamanders, to stage-restricted premetamorphic regeneration in frogs, to finger-tip regeneration in newborn mice and humans.The molecular and cellular basis for these differences in regeneration ability is not known and it is still unclear if these different regenerative events are tied by some common mechanism ...
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 FINISHED 
The immune system plays a major role in safeguarding us from cancer. Tumor progression is closely linked to functional suppression of T cell responses, and strategies to reactivate tumor-specific CD8+ T cells hold great promise for cancer therapy, as evidenced by recent clinical breakthroughs. However, the further exploration of such therapies is hampered by our incomplete understanding of key gen ...
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 FINISHED 
Emotions are a central part of our mental self and health, playing a crucial role in guiding behaviors essential for survival. For instance, threats evoke fear and avoidance behaviors; conversely, rewards induce reward-states and approach behaviors. Resolving how the variety of emotions emerges in the brain remains a major challenge for modern neuroscience. The main objective of the proposed resea ...
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 FINISHED 
The Notch pathway regulates numerous cell fate decisions throughout the development of a multicellular organism. One well-characterized Notch-dependent differentiation process is the development of T cells. Notch functions as the T lineage commitment factor at the early stages of differentiation and is required for survival, proliferation and further developmental progression later on. Although th ...
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 FINISHED 
Understanding how the brain works represents one of the greatest challenges in modern science. This question embraces mechanisms spanning multiple levels of description, from genes to biochemical pathways, from neurons to circuits, from circuit activities to adaptive behaviours. The goal of the FLiACT programme is to train young researchers in the concepts and techniques necessary to study integra ...
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 FINISHED 
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death and has the lowest survival rate of all major cancers (3-5%). Despite our advanced understanding of disease pathology and underlying genetics, there are no effective chemotherapeutic or targeted treatment options, and the median survival time remains unchanged at only 6 months. PDAC arises from complex and heteroge ...
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 FINISHED 

Systems Biology of Mitosis (MitoSys)

Start date: Jun 1, 2010, End date: May 31, 2015,

"MitoSys will generate a comprehensive mathematical understanding of mitotic division in human cells, a process of fundamental importance for human health. To create the critical mass and multidisciplinarity that is needed to achieve this ambitious goal, internationally leading mathematicians, biochemists/biophysicists and biologists working at twelve universities, research institutes, internation ...
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 FINISHED 

Genetic and Epigenetic Networks in Cognitive Dysfunction (GENCODYS)

Start date: May 1, 2010, End date: Apr 30, 2015,

Mutations in about 400 different genes have been associated with Cognitive Disorders (CD), such as mental retardation, autism, neurodegenerative disorders, and psychiatric disorders. Whereas CD impose a major medical and socio-economical problem, there are no systematic studies that aim to provide insight into common mechanisms in CD. We propose a systems biology approach to gain insight into comm ...
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 15

 FINISHED 

Regulatory Genomics in Drosophila (Regulatory Genomics)

Start date: Apr 1, 2010, End date: Mar 31, 2015,

A major goal of biology is to explain how gene regulatory information is encoded by the genome. To date, we cannot decipher this regulatory code, despite the cells ability to read it in natural and artificial sequence contexts, and in contrast to our detailed understanding of the genetic code, which allows us to seamlessly translate DNA into protein sequences. Here, I propose a regulatory genomics ...
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 FINISHED 
Besides DNA mutations, cancers harbor complex aberrations of the epigenetic landscape, which are reversible and amenable to pharmacologic intervention. Therapeutic targeting of chromatin regulators has shown great promise in first clinical studies, and this has triggered a massive effort to explore this machinery in academic and pharmaceutical research. Recently, the bromodomain and extraterminal ...
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 FINISHED 
Genome sequencing initiated a new age in biology. Now, the emphasis is on the biological interpretation of the genome: zooming on the biological functioning of the gene-products, i.e. the proteins, emerging into a filed termed proteomics. Protein levels depend not only on mRNA levels, but also on translational controls & regulated degradation, making the measurement of expression at the protein le ...
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 FINISHED 
Meiotic recombination has underpinned plant breeding for the generation of new traits of agronomic, environmental and economic importance, although we still have little understanding of the controlling mechanisms involved in this process. We will combine approaches in genomics and systems biology to obtain a detailed understanding of the factors that control recombination and will provide a basis ...
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 10

 FINISHED 
The ability of spindle microtubules of to interact dynamically with centromeric chromatin is a critical feature of chromosome segregation and ensures the faithful distribution of genetic material. Errors in this process lead to abnormal chromosome numbers and are a hallmark of cancer and birth defects. The kinetochore is the key cell division organelle that enables high fidelity transmission of ge ...
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 FINISHED 

Neural basis of Drosophila mating behaviours (Fru circuit)

Start date: Jul 1, 2009, End date: Sep 30, 2013,

How does information processing in neural circuits generate behaviour? Answering this question requires identifying each of the distinct neuronal types that contributes to a behaviour, defining their anatomy and connectivity, and establishing causal relationships between their activity, the activity of other neurons in the circuit, and the behaviour. Here, I propose such an analysis of the neural ...
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 FINISHED 
Cancer is often characterized as a disease of signal transduction pathways, since it is frequently associated with inappropriate activation of such pathways. Indeed, new therapeutic approaches in cancer therapy, such as Herceptin, frequently target signaling pathway components to revert their pathophysiological aberrations. Most oncogenic pathways have been highly conserved throughout evolution wi ...
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 FINISHED 
Innate behaviours are well studied in many animals and yet little is known regarding how these behaviours are encoded via neural circuitry and how genes regulate their development. A number of “master switch” genes have been defined that specify (i.e. are necessary and sufficient for) developmental processes, e.g. the eyeless gene, which regulates the differentiation of multiple cell types to dire ...
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 FINISHED 
"A complex network of transcription factor interactions controls the process by which B lymphocytes develop from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Pax5 has been identified as the critical transcription factor controlling B cell commitment throughout B lymphopoiesis. These analyses revealed that Pax5 commits early hematopoietic progenitors to the B cell pathway by repressing B-lineage-inappropriate ...
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 FINISHED 

Vienna Biocenter European Researchers Night (VBC ERN)

Start date: May 1, 2009, End date: Nov 30, 2009,

"Science is central to the success of the European society and to tackle some of the major problems mankind is facing in the near future. Nevertheless, negative stereotypes about scientists persist. While a slow erosion of these stereotypes is detectable, continued and sustained efforts are necessary to overcome this prevalent barrier to increase the number of scientists in Europe. The most effici ...
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