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Over 40 European Projects Found

Searched on 125080 European Projects

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SummaryThe majority of metastastic solid tumours remain incurable. In-depth analysis of tumour genomes is revealing evidence for branched evolution and cancer subclonal spatial and temporal intratumour heterogeneity (ITH). Drivers of ITH such as chromosomal instability (CIN) are associated with drug resistance and poor clinical outcome. However, despite increasing knowledge of tumour diversity, th ...
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EUBET

Start date: Sep 1, 2016, End date: Aug 31, 2018,

Bromangymnasiet in Hudiksvall is situated in a region of very high unemployment, among the young it is the highest percentage in the country (25 %). Our school has the task and mission to develop an intercultural teaching practice supported by inclusive, innovative methods and entrepreneurship to achieve a more entrepreneurial learning for the benefits of our students. For some years now, we have ...
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Chronic cancer treatment places new demands on patients and families to manage their own care. The iManageCancer project will support this challenge and provide a cancer disease self-management platform designed according to the specific needs of patient groups and focusing on the wellbeing of the cancer patient with special emphasis on psycho-emotional evaluation and self-motivated goals. The pla ...
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The microtubule cytoskeleton provides an intracellular coordinate system and a mechanical scaffold for a multitude of essential cellular functions. The design principles underlying the dynamic organisation and function of the microtubule cytoskeleton are not understood. Using an in vitro reconstitution approach, we will determine the rules that govern which combination of mechano-chemical elements ...
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Vivre et travailler en Europe

Start date: Jun 1, 2016, End date: May 31, 2018,

Our goal is to provide students with additional foreign language skills in their professional field, but also open-mindedness and adaptability towards foreign countries in the perspective of living and working abroad.The 14 students concerned are in their junior year in a vocational high-school, and they will go abroad for 4 weeks (from May 29th to June 23th 2017).The teachers who are concerned a ...
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Targeting RAS oncogene addiction (RASTARGET)

Start date: May 1, 2013, End date: Apr 30, 2018,

Lung cancer is the most common type of malignant tumour worldwide and the leading cause of cancer-related death (335,000 deaths per year in Europe). The KRAS oncogene is frequently activated by point mutation in human lung cancer and mutations in the RAS family oncogenes are responsible for driving some 20% of all human malignancies. Most cell lines from RAS mutant tumours remain “oncogene addicte ...
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ATM is the protein kinase that is mutated in the hereditary autosomal recessive disease ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). A-T patients display immune deficiencies, cancer predisposition and radiosensitivity. The molecular role of ATM is to respond to DNA damage by phosphorylating its substrates, thereby promoting repair of damage or arresting the cell cycle. Following the induction of double-strand bre ...
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... nt that the IBs are technically valid, that a measured change in the IB faithfully reflects the desired change in the underlying tumour pathology, and that the IBs can be readily deployed in multiple cancer centres in a robust, consistent, ethical, and cost-effective way acceptable to patients.2.(10% of resource, WP6) includes a portfolio of innovative approaches to devise, evaluate and introduce ...
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Aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes, is a hallmark of cancer cells, affecting the majority of all human tumours. Aneuploidy arises when errors occur during mitosis, as the duplicated chromosomes are distributed between the two new daughter cells. Paradoxically, aneuploidy appears to have detrimental consequences for the physiology of untransformed cells in vitro, inhibiting rather than s ...
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MAL: an actin-regulated SRF transcriptional coactivator (ACTINONSRF)

Start date: Oct 1, 2011, End date: Sep 30, 2017,

MAL: an actin-regulated SRF transcriptional coactivatorRecent years have seen a revitalised interest in the role of actin in nuclear processes, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unexplored. We will elucidate the molecular basis for the actin-based control of the SRF transcriptional coactivator, MAL. SRF controls transcription through two families of coactivators, the actin-bindi ...
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... 8alpha+ DC equivalents in humans. The results from this proposal will illuminate the function of CD8alpha+ DC across species and open the door for using this intriguing DC subset in immunotherapy of cancer, infectious and autoimmune diseases.
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For cells to reproduce, an accurate duplicate of the genome must be created. This is no small task. The genetic information stored in each cell consists of ~6 billion pairs of nucleobases (base pairs, bp) assembled as a polymer 2 metres long and 2 nanometres in diameter, with the structural form of a double helix. For a mammalian cell to divide, this deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) must be copied in a ...
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Vivre et travailler en Europe

Start date: Jun 1, 2015, End date: May 31, 2017,

Our goal is to provide students with additional foreign language skills in their professional field, but also open-mindedness and adaptability towards foreign countries in the perspective of living and working abroad. The 15 students concerned are in their junior year in a vocational high-school, and they will go abroad for 4 weeks (from May 29th to June 25th 2016). The teachers who are concerned ...
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Homologous recombination (HR) is an essential DNA repair mechanism and defects in different HR factors are linked with disease and cancer pre-disposition. The RAD51 recombinase plays a central role in HR, forming nucleoprotein filaments at sites of DNA damage and promoting homologous pairing and DNA strand exchange. RAD51 filament formation is mediated by the BRCA2 tumour suppressor, mutations in ...
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3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) serve as a key platform in the RNA regulatory network that controls mRNA translational efficiency, localisation and stability. Of all human cell-types, brain-specific isoforms have the longest 3' UTRs and therefore their regulation is likely to be most complex. Moreover, mutations perturbing the mRNA secondary structure and sites of mRNA-miRNA interactions can lea ...
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Dendritic cells (DC) are powerful antigen-presenting cells that can induce antigen-specific adaptive immunity to pathogens but also protective immunity against transformed self, i.e. cancer. This crucial role of DC makes them an attractive target in cancer vaccination. However, DC can also negatively regulate immunity by inducing antigen-specific tolerance and are a target in immunomodulatory appr ...
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In antiviral RNAi, the DICER (DCR) enzyme processes virus-derived double-stranded (ds)RNA into siRNAs that guide ARGONAUTE proteins to silence complementary viral RNA. As a counter-defense, viruses deploy viral suppressors of RNAi (VSRs). Well-established in plants and invertebrates, the existence of antiviral RNAi in mammals has remained unknown until our recent findings (from my first postdoctor ...
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European Vocational Education and Training

Start date: Sep 1, 2014, End date: Aug 31, 2016,

Bromangymnasiet in Hudiksvall is situated in a region of very high unemployment, among the young it is the highest percentage in the country (25 %). Our school has the task and mission to develop an intercultural teaching practice supported by innovative methods and entrepreneurship to achieve a more entrepreneurial learning for the benefits of our students. For some years now, we have run a numbe ...
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Anatomy and dynamics of the human replisome (AnDyHRep)

Start date: Sep 1, 2014, End date: Aug 31, 2016,

... ask of the cell. Mistakes in DNA replication can result in cell death or, potentially worse, in mutagenesis and genomic instability, which in turn can lead to uncontrolled proliferation, the basis of cancer. Elucidating the factors involved in DNA replication and understanding the mechanisms by which human cells guarantee the precise duplication of billions of base pairs and thereby appropriate p ...
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la Mobilité, une expérience pour tous

Start date: Jun 1, 2014, End date: May 31, 2016,

The Regional Federation of the MFR in Aquitaine-Limousin in France is a non-profit organisation eyisting in the form of an association. 25 MFR are members of the regional structure which encourages each one to adopt the goal of putting into place actions of European mobility. Our strong points : - A strong experience in the organization of transnational and mobility projects (study visits, exchang ...
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Transcription and the maintenance of genome integrity (TRANSINTEG)

Start date: May 1, 2011, End date: Apr 30, 2016,

Maintaining genome integrity is crucial, especially in protein-encoding genes. DNA damage in genes can give rise to harmful mutations, but it can also directly obstruct the progress of transcribing RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), thereby blocking gene expression. Not surprisingly, repair pathways have evolved that specifically target lesions that stop RNAPII during its journey across a gene, so-called ...
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Regulating recombination in mitotic and meiotic cells (RECMITMEI)

Start date: May 1, 2011, End date: Apr 30, 2016,

... ntaneous and environmental damage. One of the most catastrophic lesions in DNA is the double-strand break (DSB), which if left unrepaired can result in cell death, infertility, genome instability and cancer. Homologous recombination (HR) is a largely error-free mechanism of DSB repair that utilizes an intact sister or homologous chromosome as a repair template. Despite considerable progress in und ...
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Nuclear shape is one of the gold standards for detection and characterization of cancers. Nonetheless the control of nuclear morphology and its relationship to malignant behaviors are still poorly understood. We propose to study the mechanisms that lead to nuclear dysmorphia and their consequence on nuclear functions such as genome integrity and migration. The first part of the research will start ...
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Epigenetics towards systems biology (EPIGENESYS)

Start date: Oct 1, 2010, End date: Mar 31, 2016,

The ‘EpiGeneSys’ Network of Excellence aims to enable European epigenetics research to enter the arena of systems biology, a new step forward with major implications for human health. Many diseases, not explained solely by gene mutation, have rather been associated with epigenetic disorders. Following the identification of key epigenetic regulators, a move towards a systems biology approach is nee ...
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... of the most dangerous forms of DNA damage and cells utilise two major pathways for their repair: error-prone non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and error-free homologous recombination (HR). The breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2 is a central player in HR that cooperates with its partner PALB2 in promoting the recruitment of RAD51 recombinase to the site of DNA damage. BRCA2 function is esse ...
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... knowledge of immunological responses, but more precisely will explain how different B cell populations are originated after B cell activation, a key step that is deregulated in some diseases such as cancer.1. O. Thaunat et al., Science 335, 475 (Feb 26, 2012).
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy is effective at controlling HIV-1 replication, however emergence and transmission of drug-resistant viruses is increasing, including viruses resistant to the newly developped integrase catalytic inhibitors. It is essential that new antiretrovirals (ARVs) become available. Most ARVs in development belong to the classes of viral enzyme inhibitors. Since HIV requi ...
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Lung cancer is the most common cancer fatality in Europe (335000 deaths/yr). Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) consists 85% of the cases, with 5 yr survival
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Oncogenic signalling by kinases presents a significant opportunity for cancer therapy. The B-Raf selective inhibitor, Vemurafenib, has shown great effect against B-Raf mutant melanoma patients. However, drug resistance emerges in nearly every case. Various mechanisms underlying this resistance are described, however these approaches usually overlook the heterogeneity of the tumour microenvironment ...
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... he most important and basic processes a cell undertakes. It is essential that this process is tightly and carefully regulated as errors in DNA replication are catastrophic, resulting in diseases like cancer. The synthetic or S phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle is entirely devoted to genome duplication by orchestrating two processes: DNA replication and histone production. Histones are small basic ...
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Telomere function in meiosis (TELOMERES IN MEIOSIS)

Start date: Jun 1, 2010, End date: May 31, 2015,

Telomeres have long been known to play crucial roles in protecting chromosome ends from attrition and fusion and thus safeguarding genome stability, but their complete functional repertoire has yet to be fully understood. Among the fundamental roles of telomeres is their role in meiosis, the process by which parental genomes are recombined and halved, allowing the generation of genetic diversity v ...
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... nise a wide variety of lesions in DNA. These repair systems are essential for the maintenance of genome integrity. Unfortunately, some individuals are genetically predisposed to crippling diseases or cancers that are the direct result of mutations in genes involved in the DNA damage response. For several years our work has been at the forefront of basic biological research in the area of DNA repai ...
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... per cell cycle is crucial for maintaining the integrity of the genome. Recent evidence indicates that defects in the regulation of origin firing may be important contributors to genome instability in cancer. Strict once per cell cycle DNA replication is achieved by a two-step mechanism. DNA replication origins are first licensed by loading an inactive DNA helicase (Mcm2-7) into pre-replicative com ...
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Dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential function in initiating adaptive immunity. Key to DC function are receptors for recognizing and capturing pathogens and damaged cells and for controlling subsequent antigen extraction, processing and presentation. DNGR-1 (also known as CLEC9A) is a DC-restricted C-type lectin receptor (CLR) that recognizes the actin cytoskeleton exposed on necrotic cells. DNG ...
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Our genetic material is continually subjected to damage and efficient repair is needed for cancer avoidance. DNA double-strand breaks are cytotoxic and are repaired either by Non Homologous End-Joining or Homologous Recombination (HR). HR provides an important function in DNA repair, where it serves the dual purpose of mending broken chromosomes and recovering sequence information that might be l ...
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... nd promotes apoptosis. Although initially discovered in Drosophila, the Hippo pathway is highly conserved in mammals. Mutations and epigenetic silencing of Hippo pathway genes are frequently found in cancer tissues. Thus, our understanding of pathway regulation is important for the understanding of tumour formation and potential cancer treatments.The upstream regulation of the Hippo pathway is com ...
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... to lysosomes providing energy for cellular metabolism. In multicellular organisms autophagy is essential for tissue homeostasis and deficient autophagy is implicated in a broad range of diseases e.g. cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. To develop therapeutic strategies targeting autophagy a comprehensive understanding of the molecular protein machinery mediating and regulating autophagy is req ...
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A molecular view of chromosome condensation (CHROMOCOND)

Start date: Apr 1, 2010, End date: Mar 31, 2015,

Eukaryotic cells inherit much of their genomic information in the form of chromosomes during cell division. Centimetre-long DNA molecules are packed into micrometer-sized chromosomes to enable this process. How DNA is organised within mitotic chromosomes is still largely unknown. A key structural protein component of mitotic chromosomes, implicated in their compaction, is the condensin complex. In ...
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The DNA damage response and breast cancer (DDRESPONSE)

Start date: Feb 1, 2011, End date: Jan 31, 2015,

We will exploit the DNA damage response (DDR) to assess and predict individual susceptibility and response focussed on breast cancer and breast cancer therapies. The 1st targeted therapy based on the DDR is inhibition of PARP by olaparib, which induces synthetic lethality in cancer cells with a specific DDR defect. Our members discovered olaparib, which is currently in Phase II trials. Its use in ...
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Breast Cancer Somatic Genetics Study (BASIS)

Start date: Jul 1, 2010, End date: Dec 31, 2014,

"All cancers arise due to somatically acquired mutations in their genomes which alter the function of key cancer genes. Understanding these critical mutational events underlying cancer development is paramount for advancing prevention, early detection, monitoring and treatment of the disease. Breast cancer is the most common class of cancer diagnosed in women worldwide with more than one million c ...
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