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Cryogenic Hypersonic Advanced Tank Technologies (CHATT)
Start date: Jan 1, 2012, End date: Jun 30, 2015 PROJECT  FINISHED 

"Topic: Cryogenic propellant management and advanced tank design for hypersonic and advanced future aviation systemsIn future aviation and particularly in hypersonic systems new propellants will be used, such as liquid hydrogen, liquid methane and possibly even liquid oxygen. These systems will require complex technology, ultra light-weight, and reusable propellant tank systems. Challenging technological developments are required for such systems. New materials and design concepts are required such as fibre composites in order to reduce the tank weight and to increase the structural performance. Propellant management is imperative for achieving reliable and efficient vehicle operation. The sloshing of cryogenic fluids close to their boiling conditions in tanks of horizontal take-off vehicles is not yet mastered.Proposed work tasks are:• Design, manufacturing, and tests of 4 different scaled cryo-tanks in CFRP material including and w/o liner.• Screening of future cryogenic insulation systems not only lightweight and long lasting but also resistant to the high thermal gradients experienced in hypersonic flight. New cryogenic insulation concepts and materials will be addressed, such as e.g. Aerogels.• The following propellant management technologies will be studied by simulation or experiment: tank pressurization, fuel location/retention, horizontal sloshing, analytical and experimental study of stratification, nucleation, and boiling in cryogenic fuel tanks subject to surface heat transfer.• Design of a small ceramic heat exchanger to assess the safe generation of gaseous propellants used for improved tank pressurization, attitude control and cabin oxygen supply. A prototype Rankine cycle cabin air-conditioning system, utilising a cryogenic working fluid is designed.• All cryo-tank technologies will be driven by system requirements of advanced passenger vehicles (e.g. LAPCAT A2 and the SpaceLiner) and results will at the study end be assessed on impact."
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