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Start date: Sep 1, 2013, End date: Aug 31, 2016 PROJECT  FINISHED 

A lifetime of 4000 cycles at 80 % DOD and an energy density of 250 Wh/kg is a target for automotive batteries. The Batteries2020 project takes several steps to increase lifetime and energy density of large format lithium ion batteries towards these goals. Our approach is based on three parallel strategies: 1) highly focused materials development; 2) understanding ageing and degradation phenomena; and, 3) routes to reduce battery cost.We will improve cathode materials based on nickel/manganese/cobalt (NMC) oxides. Such materials have a high chance to be up-scaled and commercialized near-term. Only then, cell development efforts can be translated from pilot to mass production, a prerequisite for qualification in the automotive industry.We will start with state of the art cells and will develop two improved generations of NMC materials and cells towards high performance, high stability and cycleability.A deep understanding of ageing phenomena and degradation mechanisms can help to identify critical parameters that affect lifetime battery performance. This identification helps effectively improving materials, system and the development of materials selection criteria. However, ageing and degradation mechanisms have multiple reasons and are complex. We propose a realistic approach with a combined and well organised Consortium effort towards the development of robust testing methodology which will be improved in several steps. Combined accelerated, real tests, real field data, post-mortem, modelling and validation will provide a thorough understanding of ageing and degradation processes.Battery cost is a major barrier to EV market. Second life uses can reduce battery costs. We will analyse the potentiality of reusing and recycling batteries for providing economic viable project outputs.Our consortium combines a wide range of expertise from materials development and battery production to lifetime characterisation and viability and sustainability of the chosen appro

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