Search for European Projects

Over 40 European Projects Found

Searched on 125080 European Projects

 ONGOING 
Males and females display profound differences in phenotype, physiology and behavior, and understanding the evolutionary forces driving this diversity is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology. Sexually antagonistic conflict, resulting from traits and/or mutations that are beneficial to one sex but harmful to the other, can in theory lead to strong dimorphism, and has been invoked to explain ...
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 ONGOING 
A fundamental question in neuroscience is how the biophysical properties of synapses shape higher network computations. The hippocampal mossy fiber synapse, formed between axons of dentate gyrus granule cells and dendrites of CA3 pyramidal neurons, is the ideal synapse to address this question. This synapse is accessible to presynaptic recording, due to its large size, allowing a rigorous investig ...
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 ONGOING 
While access to 3D-printing technology becomes ubiquitous and provides revolutionary possibilities for fabricating complex, functional, multi-material objects with stunning properties, its potential impact is currently significantly limited due to the lack of efficient and intuitive methods for content creation. Existing tools are usually restricted to expert users, have been developed based on th ...
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 ONGOING 

Analysis of quantum many-body systems (AQUAMS)

Start date: Oct 1, 2016, End date: Sep 30, 2021,

The main focus of this project is the mathematical analysis of many-body quantum systems, in particular, interacting quantum gases at low temperature. The recent experimental advances in studying ultra-cold atomic gases have led to renewed interest in these systems. They display a rich variety of quantum phenomena, including, e.g., Bose–Einstein condensation and superfluidity, which makes them int ...
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 ONGOING 
Ligand-gated and voltage-gated channels are key molecules in transforming chemical signals into electrical ones and electrical signals into chemical ones, respectively. At excitatory synaptic connections in the brain, activation of AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors elicits inward currents at the postsynaptic sites, and activation of voltage-gated calcium channels triggers vesicle release of ...
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 ONGOING 
Individuals of the same species vary widely in size, but their organs have reproducible proportions and patterns of cell types. How cell fate specification and tissue growth are coordinated during embryonic development to achieve this reproducibility is a fundamental question in biology. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the underlying mechanisms. A major challenge has been to obtain the qua ...
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 ONGOING 

Self-Organization of the Bacterial Cell (SELFORGANICELL)

Start date: Apr 1, 2016, End date: Mar 31, 2021,

One of the most remarkable features of biological systems is their ability to self-organize in space and time. Even a relatively simple cell like the bacterium Escherichia coli has a precisely regulated cellular anatomy, which emerges from dynamic interactions between proteins and the cell membrane. Self-organization allows the cell to perform extremely challenging tasks. For example, for cell div ...
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 ONGOING 

Teaching Old Crypto New Tricks (TOCNeT)

Start date: Apr 1, 2016, End date: Mar 31, 2021,

The bulk of the research in modern cryptography goes into constructing new schemes for which stronger security guarantees can be proven. However, often it is not clear if simple existing schemes already provide the required security, and we just don’t know how to prove it. As these new schemes are usually less efficient, they are not being applied resulting in a large discrepancy between the secur ...
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 ONGOING 

Hybrid Optomechanical Technologies (HOT)

Start date: Jan 1, 2017, End date: Dec 31, 2020,

The hybrid optomechanical technologies (HOT) consortium will lay the foundation for a new generation of devices, which connect, or indeed contain, several platforms at the nanoscale in a single “hybrid” system. As hybrid interfaces they will allow to harness the unique advantages of each subsystem within a nano-scale footprint, while as integrated hybrid devices they will enable entirely novel fun ...
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 ONGOING 

International IST Doctoral Program (ISTScholar)

Start date: Oct 1, 2015, End date: Sep 30, 2020,

The Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) is an English language PhD-granting research institute with focus on basic research in the natural and mathematical sciences. ISTScholar offers PhD training in biology, neuroscience, computer science, mathematics, physics and relevant interdisciplinary areas. The program is divided into two distinct phases: Phase 1 is dedicated to cours ...
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 ONGOING 

Selective Barriers to Horizontal Gene Transfer (EVOLHGT)

Start date: Jun 1, 2015, End date: May 31, 2020,

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a form of genic inheritance that occurs between individuals in a population or between species rather than from parent to offspring. HGT is most prevalent in bacteria, where it is an important source of novel metabolic pathways, pathogenicity factors, and antibiotic resistance.In spite of the importance of HGT, we understand little about the evolutionary barriers ...
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 ONGOING 
Computational simulations of natural phenomena are essential in science, engineering, product design, architecture, and computer graphics applications. However, despite progress in numerical algorithms and computational power, it is still unfeasible to compute detailed simulations at large scales. To make matters worse, important phenomena like turbulent splashing liquids and fracturing solids rel ...
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 ONGOING 

Value Intellectual Property for SMEs (VIP4SME)

Start date: Dec 15, 2015, End date: Dec 14, 2019,

The main goal of the VIP4SME project is to sustainably enhance Intellectual Property (IP) support services to SMEs in order to allow them to understand the value of the intellectual capital they create and own, and to define strategies and management practices allowing them to better turn this capital into commercial values and competitiveness. This challenge will be jointly addressed by 31 Nation ...
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 FINISHED 

Discrete Optimization in Computer Vision: Theory and Practice (DOiCV)

Start date: Jun 1, 2014, End date: May 31, 2019,

This proposal aims at developing new inference algorithms for graphical models with discrete variables, with a focus on the MAP estimation task. MAP estimation algorithms such as graph cuts have transformed computer vision in the last decade; they are now routinely used and are also utilized in commercial systems.Topics of this project fall into 3 categories.Theoretically-oriented: Graph cut techn ...
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 FINISHED 
ENABLE-S3 will pave the way for accelerated application of highly automated and autonomous systems in the mobility domains automotive, aerospace, rail and maritime as well as in the health care domain. Virtual testing, verification and coverage-oriented test selection methods will enable validation with reasonable efforts. The resulting validation framework will ensure Europeans Industry competiti ...
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 FINISHED 

Soft-bodied intelligence for Manipulation (SoMa)

Start date: May 1, 2015, End date: Apr 30, 2019,

The main obstacle to a wide-spread adoption of advanced manipulation systems in industry is their complexity, fragility, lack of strength, and difficulty of use. This project describes a path of disruptive innovation for the development of simple, compliant, yet strong, robust, and easy-to-program manipulation systems. The idea is: Soft Manipulation (SoMa).SoMa explores a new avenue of robotic man ...
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 FINISHED 

"Random matrices, universality and disordered quantum systems" (RANMAT)

Start date: Mar 1, 2014, End date: Feb 28, 2019,

"Large complex systems tend to develop universal patterns that often represent their essential characteristics. A pioneering vision of E. Wigner was that the distribution of the gaps between energy levels of complicated quantum systems depends only on the basic symmetry of the model and is otherwise independent of the physical details. This thesis has never been rigorously provedfor any realistic ...
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 FINISHED 
A renewed interest in Ge has been sparked by the prospects of exploiting its lower effective mass and higher hole mobility to improve the performance of transistors. Ge emerges also as a promising material in the field of spin qubits, as its coherence times are expected to be very long. Finally, it has been proposed that strained Ge nanowires show an unusually large spin orbit interaction, making ...
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 FINISHED 
This proposal will focus on the hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) synapse, formed between the axons of dentate gyrus granule cells and CA3 pyramidal neurons. The hippocampus plays an important role in learning and memory formation and MF synapses are involved in processing, storage and recall of spatial information. The MF tract connects the entorhinal cortex to CA3 pyramidal neurons. MF presynaptic te ...
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 FINISHED 

Rate of Adaptation in a Changing Environment (RACE)

Start date: Jan 1, 2017, End date: Dec 31, 2018,

For thousands of years, we have been changing the environment that surrounds us to satisfy our needs and to make our life safer, easier and more prosperous. However, we are not alone on this planet and the increasing magnitude of alterations we impose on our environment impacts the biosphere at every level, from bacteria to mammals. Many of these anthropogenic influences may be fatal for those spe ...
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 FINISHED 
The objectives of this proposal are to determine atomic-resolution structures of mammalian mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplexes (RCSs) by single particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). It has been shown that the large protein complexes of the inner mitochondrial membrane responsible for electron transport from NADH to molecular oxygen (complexes I, III and IV) associate to form thre ...
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 FINISHED 

Higher education student and staff mobility project

Start date: Jun 1, 2016, End date: May 31, 2018,

This is a higher education student and staff mobility project, please consult the website of the organisation to obtain additional details.
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 FINISHED 

Arithmetic and physics of Higgs moduli spaces (ARIPHYHIMO)

Start date: Apr 1, 2013, End date: Mar 31, 2018,

The proposal studies problems concerning the geometry and topology of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles on a Riemann surface motivated by parallel considerations in number theory and mathematical physics. In this way the proposal bridges various duality theories in string theory with the Langlands program in number theory.The heart of the proposal is a circle of precise conjectures relating to the to ...
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 FINISHED 
Quantum processing promises exponential speedups for certain computational problems and superconducting circuits are believed to be a scalable platform for this future era of information technology. One problem is that superconducting systems operate in the microwave regime where quantum communication via room temperature channels becomes impossible due to transmission losses and electronic noise. ...
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 FINISHED 

Human Brain Project Specific Grant Agreement 1 (HBP SGA1)

Start date: Apr 1, 2016, End date: Mar 31, 2018,

Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time. Such an understanding can provide profound insights into our humanity, leading to fundamentally new computing technologies, and transforming the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. Modern ICT brings this prospect within reach. The HBP Flagship Initiative (HBP) thus proposes a unique strategy that uses I ...
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 FINISHED 
A commonly repeated maxim is that an individual cortical neuron receives synaptic input from tens of thousands of presynaptic partners, with each individual connection carrying only minor weight. In that case, concerted firing by many presynaptic neurons is required to cause an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron. However, there is inconclusive evidence that the mossy fiber synapse (the se ...
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 FINISHED 

Life Long Learning for Visual Scene Understanding (L3ViSU) (L3ViSU)

Start date: Jan 1, 2013, End date: Dec 31, 2017,

"My goal in the project is to develop and analyze algorithms that use continuous, open-ended machine learning from visual input data (images and videos) in order to interpret visual scenes on a level comparable to humans.L3ViSU is based on the hypothesis that we can only significantly improve the state of the art in computer vision algorithms by giving them access to background and contextual know ...
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 FINISHED 

Decoding the complexity of turbulence at its origin (TURBOFLOW)

Start date: Jan 1, 2013, End date: Dec 31, 2017,

"Turbulence is the probably most complex and at the same time most relevant example of spatio-temporal disorder in nature. The transport of heat and mass in stars, the formation of planets, as well as flows in the earth atmosphere, oceans or around vehicles are all governed by turbulence. Despite its ubiquity our insights into this complex phenomenon are very limited. In contrast to many studies w ...
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 FINISHED 
IN-SENS is an interdisciplinary, cutting-edge European industry-academia collaborative effort for a novel training of scientists in molecular psychiatry with the prospect of discovering the biology of schizophrenia and actively promote drug discovery. Mental illnesses are a major burden to patients, relatives, and public health worldwide. IN-SENS therefore aims to profoundly change the academic-in ...
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 FINISHED 

Advanced Immunization Technologies (ADITEC)

Start date: Oct 1, 2011, End date: Sep 30, 2017,

Vaccines so far have been developed mostly by following an empiric approach. To prevent and possibly cure unresolved and emerging infectious diseases we need to fully exploit the potential of the human immune system. Progress in science and technology makes it possible to achieve what was previously deemed impossible. The scope of this project is to produce knowledge necessary to develop novel and ...
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 FINISHED 
Studies that examine the genetic consequences of hybridization and introgression (gene exchange among species) have traditionally considered the genome a single entity. However, the concept of a porous genome suggests differential rates of introgression across the genome as a result of different selective pressures; loci under balancing selection are likely to show high rates of introgression, whi ...
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 FINISHED 

Molecular Mechanisms of Cerebral Cortex Development (MOMECODE)

Start date: Sep 1, 2013, End date: Aug 31, 2017,

"The cerebral cortex, the seat of our cognitive abilities, is composed of an intricate network of interconnected neurons. The cortical cytoarchitecture consists of distinct layers with different cellular composition and function. Due to an immense heterogeneity in the cortical neuron types it is currently not known how many classes and which subtypes of cortical neurons make up the distinct cortic ...
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 FINISHED 

International IST Postdoctoral Fellowship Programme (ISTFELLOW)

Start date: Jul 1, 2012, End date: Jun 30, 2017,

... nded in 2006 through an Austrian Federal Law, the IST campus in Klosterneuburg, 18 km from the center of Vienna, was opened for theoretical research in 2009 and for experimental research in 2010. The Institute is dedicated to cutting-edge basic research in the natural and mathematical sciences; it currently hosts 16 research groups - four of which are supported by ERC grants - and will grow by 5-7 ...
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 FINISHED 
Cell migration is a universal feature of all metazoan life and crucially involved in most developmental, homeostatic and pathological processes. Most efforts to understand its molecular and mechanical aspects were focused on the “haptokinetic” paradigm. Here cells generate traction by coupling the protrusive and contractile forces of the actomyosin cytoskeleton via transmembrane receptors to the e ...
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 FINISHED 
"The ability of cells to move invasively through the cellular junctions of the endothelial vasculature underlies the function of the immune system and the metastatic spread of cancer. How the invading and the invaded cells communicate to synchronize their actions during this behavior remains unclear. We are studying these questions using the developmental migration of Drosophila immune cells thr ...
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 FINISHED 
Control of transcription in bacteria is achieved at many levels, including regulation of transcription initiation and termination, as well as the availability and stability of mRNAs. While some of these mechanisms have been extensively studied and seem to be tightly controlled, transcription termination is often strikingly inefficient. Why such a central process should be inefficient is unclear, a ...
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 FINISHED 
In the present proposal, we plan to examine the dendrites, axons, and presynaptic terminals of fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic interneurons using subcellular patch-clamp methods pioneered by the PI, imaging techniques, and computational approaches.The goal is to obtain a quantitative nanophysiological picture of signaling in this key type of interneuron. By incorporating realistic B ...
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 FINISHED 

OPTIMALITY PRINCIPLES IN RESPONSES TO ANTIBIOTICS (OPRA)

Start date: Feb 1, 2013, End date: Jan 31, 2017,

"Antibiotics kill bacteria or inhibit their growth by targeting essential cellular processes. In response to antibiotic exposure, bacteria activate gene regulation programs that are specific to the action of the antibiotic. These responses to individual antibiotics are often well-mapped, but how do bacteria respond dynamically to drugs? And is this regulation optimized for survival and growth in t ...
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 FINISHED 

POLARITY AND SUBCELLULAR DYNAMICS IN PLANTS (PSDP)

Start date: Feb 1, 2012, End date: Jan 31, 2017,

"Plant life strategy is marked by acquisition of highly flexible development that adapts plants’ phenotype to the environment. Various environmental signals are integrated into the endogenous signalling networks involving the versatile phytohormone auxin. The intercellular auxin transport mediates a large variety of adaptive plant growth responses. Subcellular polar distribution of PIN auxin trans ...
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 FINISHED 
Biological evolution has produced an extraordinary diversity of organisms, even the simplest of which is highly adapted, with multiple complex structures. Evolutionary computation has found that many innovative solutions to optimisation and design problems can be achieved by artificial evolution via random variation and selection.Despite the centrality of evolution to biology and the usefulness of ...
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