# Search for European Projects

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## High-Performance Secure Computation with Applications to Privacy and Cloud Security (HIPS)

### Start date: Oct 1, 2014, End date: Sep 30, 2019,

"Secure two-party and multiparty computation has long stood at the center of the foundations of theoretical cryptography. However, in the last five years there has been blistering progress on the question of efficient secure computation. We are close to the stage that secure computation can be applied to real-world privacy and security problems. There is thus considerable interest in secure comput ...

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## Single cell genomic profiling of renal cancer stem cells (SingleCellGenomics)

### Start date: Jul 1, 2015, End date: Jun 30, 2019,

"Complex biological systems such as a developing embryo, a regenerating tissue, or a tumor are composed of heterogeneous cell types. The complex behavior of these systems is often dominated by a minority cell population such as the embryonic stem cells in a developing organism or cancer stem cells in tumors. Thus, in order to properly understand development, tissue regeneration, and cancer, a sing ...

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## Robust Codes from Higher Dimesional Expanders (COHOMCODES)

### Start date: Feb 1, 2014, End date: Jan 31, 2019,

"Error correcting codes play a fundamental role in computer science. Good codes are codes with rate and distance that are asymptotically optimal. Some of the most successful good codes are constructed using expander graphs. In recent years a new notion of {\em robust} error correcting codes, known as locally testable codes (LTCs), has emerged. Locally testable codes are codes in which a proximity ...

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## Nonlinear and Quantum Optics at X-Ray Wavelengths (XRAYQUN)

### Start date: Dec 1, 2014, End date: Nov 30, 2018,

"The objective of this work will be to explore, experimentally and theoretically, nonlinear and quantum optical effects in the x-ray spectral regime. These are novel fields of research offering many exciting new opportunities, which now become possible due to the recent and expected improvements in the x-ray sources. It should be emphasized that the physical description of nonlinear and quantum ef ...

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## Linking Brain Activity to Selective Attention at a “Cocktail Party”: Enhancing Performance through Top-Down Modulation of Sensory Processing (AttentionBCI)

### Start date: Nov 1, 2014, End date: Oct 31, 2018,

The ability to selectively pay attention to a particular stream of input in the environment and to ignore competing irrelevant sounds is of utmost importance in daily life. This challenge is epitomized by the well-known “Cocktail Party Problem”, which has fascinated psychologist, neuroscientists, engineers and computer scientists for decades. Yet, to date much remains unknown about the neural basi ...

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## Molecular Robots Exhibiting Collective Behaviours (MRECB)

### Start date: Oct 1, 2013, End date: Sep 30, 2018,

Cells carry out biochemical and physiological functions in the body by intricately controlling the position and activity of matter at the nanoscale. In contrast, our ability to exert equivalent spatiotemporal control over therapeutic molecules is extremely inadequate. That is the reason why although we have very effective therapeutics, their use is often limited by excess toxicity and adverse effe ...

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## Fragments of cuneiform medicine in the Babylonian Talmud: Knowledge Transfer in Late Antiquity (BabMed)

### Start date: Jul 1, 2013, End date: Jun 30, 2018,

BabMed represents the first ever comprehensive study of ancient Babylonian medical science since the decipherment of cuneiform, comprising the largest ancient collection of medical data before Hippocrates. The latest phase of Babylonian medicine, as preserved in Aramaic in the Babylonian Talmud, has never been systematically studied in the light of older cuneiform materials. The absence of acces ...

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## Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the gut microbiome (PCOS Microbiome)

### Start date: Jun 1, 2014, End date: May 31, 2018,

"The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) consists of anovulation, acne, hirsutism (resulting from hyperandrogenism), and reversed serum LH to FSH ratio and two hallmarks that include low grade inflammation and insulin resistance. These features place women with PCOS as a group of patients related to the metabolic syndrome. Baranova et al. even stated that ""it seems appropriate to consider polycystic ...

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## Encodoing Social Interaction (Encoding Experience)

### Start date: Mar 1, 2014, End date: Feb 28, 2018,

Living in a social environment requires extracting social information in a meaningful way, a process that involves the perception of socially relevant signals, representation in the brain and integration with prior experience, eventually leading to modulation of behavior. Understanding how the brain interprets the world requires us to integrate our understanding of genes, brain circuits and ongoin ...

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## Bilateral computations in odor localization and its relation to behavior (BilateralComputation)

### Start date: Mar 1, 2014, End date: Feb 28, 2018,

The brain is composed of two hemispheres that communicate with each other. While tremendous progress has been made in recent years in understanding the role of each sub brain region, understanding how bilateral communications (BC) contribute to brain computations and behavior is poorly understood. BC is crucial for spatial localization as well as higher cognitive functions such as language and per ...

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## Multi-Dimensional Lab-On-Chip (MuDLOC)

### Start date: Feb 1, 2013, End date: Jan 31, 2018,

There are several bottlenecks that hinder certain aspects of proteomics, in particular, incompatibility of high throughput technologies with certain protein types or modifications, low sensitivity and lack of quantitative data. I have developed a microfluidics affinity assay compatible with transmembrane proteins and post-translational modifications that is highly sensitive and can provide quantit ...

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## Functional materials for fast diagnosis of wound infection (InFact)

### Start date: Jan 1, 2014, End date: Dec 31, 2017,

"Early detection of an incipient wound infection is a challenge for the attending physician , since its early diagnosis allows the timely initiation of treatment, thus reducing the severity of the disease . Currently, however, wound infection is not diagnosed until becoming already evident. As a consequence, the treatment of the patient is further complicated and more likely to have a negative ou ...

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## Logical re-routing of cellular communication networks by DNA origami nanorobot (DNA NANO-ROUTERS)

### Start date: Dec 1, 2013, End date: Nov 30, 2017,

Almost every aspect of higher organism biology such as metabolism, growth and immunity, is regulated by intricate communication networks between multiple cell types. The ability to skew or interfere with these networks could lead to new ways to alleviate diseases caused or maintained by the interacting cells. However, since these cells are often dispersed across the entire organism, precise modula ...

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## Inter- and Intra-Individual Differences in Knowledge-Based Inference Generation During Reading Comprehension: The Role of Working Memory Capacity and Utilization (WMCIG)

### Start date: Dec 1, 2013, End date: Nov 30, 2017,

"Reading comprehension is a high-order complex process that depends on the operation of various cognitive mechanisms. The present research aims to explore the interaction of three central mechanisms: knowledge-based inferences, working memory (WM), and motivation. Specifically, the proposed research was designed to study the involvement of the different functions of working memory—storage, process ...

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## Genome, the Edited Version: DNA and RNA Editing of Mammalian Retroelements (Gendever)

### Start date: Oct 1, 2012, End date: Sep 30, 2017,

It is generally thought that an organism contains the exactly same genomic information in all its cells and that a genome remains unaltered throughout the organism’s life, with the exception of rare and random somatic mutations that might occur. This genomic information will also serve as a template for exact RNA copies. However, endogenous and powerful means of creating inner genomic diversity ar ...

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## Stacks in Representation Theory, Relative Trace Formula and analysis of Automorphic Periods (STACKSRTFPERIODS)

### Start date: Mar 1, 2012, End date: Aug 31, 2017,

"One of the central problems in number theory is to prove somereasonably sharp bounds for values of $L$-functions and ofcorresponding automorphic periods (they are usually called ""subconvexitybounds""). In this project I propose to study two new toolsin representation theory of reductive groups over local fields-- Densities on Stcks and Mirolocalization of representtions.I am going to use these ...

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## Molecular mechanisms of tumor suppressor functions of HECT-type E3 ligase Smurf2: roles in chromatin organization, dynamics, gene expression and DNA damage response and repair (Smurf2 in Cancer)

### Start date: Aug 1, 2013, End date: Jul 31, 2017,

Cancer is a multifaceted disease in which dysregulated gene expression and other aberrant activities are crucial for neoplastic initiation, progression and tumor cell survival upon the treatment with anticancer modalities.One of the major mechanisms that regulate these processes is protein ubiquitination. This modification can impose diverse effects on gene products–proteins, ranging from proteoly ...

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## "Dynamics, Spectral Theory, and Arithmetic in Quantum Chaos" (DSTAQC)

### Start date: Apr 1, 2013, End date: Mar 31, 2017,

"This proposal aims to study the relationship between the spectrum of the Laplacian on a compact hyperbolic surface, and the geometry and dynamics of the geodesic flow on the surface, in the context of the Quantum Unique Ergodicity (QUE) Conjecture--- which asks for the eigenfunctions to become equidistributed in the large eigenvalue limit. It is thought that this question might be related to the ...

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## Magnetic imaging of individual nanomagnets (NANOMAG-SQ)

### Start date: Mar 1, 2013, End date: Feb 28, 2017,

"Magnetic nanoparticles have a number of present and proposed applications in biology and medicine, such as bio-separation, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging and hyperthermia cancer treatment, as well as important role in future high density data storage and spintronic devices. Therefore, there is high interest and strong need to characterize them properly. So far the common characterizati ...

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## Targeted Modulation of Immune-System Responses in Cell Therapies (MODICELL)

### Start date: Jan 1, 2013, End date: Dec 31, 2016,

Cell-based immunotherapies are a modern treatment approach holding promise to utilize nature’s own power to treat diseases that develop on the ground of immune system aberrations. Such diseases include cancer that develops and progresses via immune escape and on the other hand rejection of transplanted organs that need to be accepted by the immune system. Because the functions of distinct immune c ...

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## DyE SensiTized solar cells wIth eNhanced stabilitY (Destiny)

### Start date: Nov 1, 2012, End date: Oct 31, 2016,

The DESTINY initial training network will tackle major challenges in the development of stable dye-sensitized solar cells, DSC. DSC offer exciting possibilities for applications in building integrated photovoltaics and consumer electronics. However they possess a complex structure with disparate materials. For DSC to be marketable and to compete with its inorganic counterparts, fundamental science ...

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## Should historical injustices be corrected? (HISTORICALINJUSTICES)

### Start date: Jun 1, 2012, End date: Oct 31, 2016,

This research aims to examine whether historical injustices should be corrected. Historical injustices are cases of past wrongs, in which all the wrongdoers and all the victims have passed away. Are the descendants of the victims entitled to compensation? What kind of compensation? Who should bear the cost of this compensation, once all the wrongdoers have died? These are extremely difficult quest ...

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## Regulation of breast cancer invasion and metastasis by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2 (BCIMPyk2)

### Start date: Nov 1, 2012, End date: Oct 31, 2016,

Metastatic spread of cancer cells to other tissues and organs is the primary cause of mortality from breast cancer. Metastatic cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and blood vessels by forming F-actin rich protrusions called invadopodia that degrade the extracellular matrix and enable invasion through it. A major challenge in breast cancer research is to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie i ...

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## Foundational Research on MULTIlevel comPLEX networks and systems (MULTIPLEX)

### Start date: Nov 1, 2012, End date: Oct 31, 2016,

Future advancements in ICT domain are closely linked to the understanding about how multi-level complex systems function. Indeed, multi-level dependencies may amplify cascade failures or make more sudden the collapse of the entire system. Recent large-scale blackouts resulting from cascades in the power-grid coupled to the control communication system witness this point very clearly. A better unde ...

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## PRACTICE: Privacy-Preserving Computation in the Cloud (PRACTICE)

### Start date: Nov 1, 2013, End date: Oct 31, 2016,

The traditional computing paradigm is experiencing a fundamental shift: organizations no longer completely control their own data, but instead hand it to external untrusted parties - cloud service providers, for processing and storage. There currently exist no satisfactory approach to protect data during computation from cloud providers and from other users of the cloud.PRACTICE has assembled the ...

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## Critical transitions and self-organization in sleep micro-architecture (CriticalSleep)

### Start date: Oct 1, 2014, End date: Sep 30, 2016,

Humans and animals exhibit brief awakenings from sleep (arousals), which are traditionally viewed as random disruptions of sleep caused by external stimuli or pathologic perturbations. However, our recent findings show that arousals represent previously unrecognized intrinsic aspects of sleep, and exhibit complex temporal organization and scale-invariant behavior characterized by a power-law proba ...

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## FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY IN CORTICAL MICROCIRCUITS (FUNCCOMI)

### Start date: Sep 1, 2013, End date: Aug 31, 2016,

"The aim of this project is to understand the fundamental computation that underlies normalization in cortical sensory circuits. Neuronal responses during sensory processing depend on the statistical properties of the sensory stimuli as well as on the macroscopic organization of the cortical network that together facilitate the functional interplay between neurons within the network in order to pe ...

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## The Cultural Diffusion of the Fertility Transition: Internal Migrations in Nineteenth Century France (TCDOFT)

### Start date: Sep 1, 2013, End date: Aug 31, 2016,

"To understand why some developing countries have progressively seen their fertility level declined and converged with the rest of the world during the twentieth century while others have not, this proposal offers an historical perspective based on France, which was the first European country where the fertility rate declined substantially.The secular decline in French fertility during the 19th ce ...

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## Discovery of drugs for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AlzheimersDrug)

### Start date: Aug 1, 2012, End date: Jul 31, 2016,

Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of proteins and protein fragments in the brain, progressive neuronal loss, inflammation, and the gradual and inevitable decline of memory and cognition. Decline of memory and cognition is coupled with binding of β amyloid peptides (Aβ) and their derived diffusible ligands (ADDL) to the nicotinic acetylcholine rece ...

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## Genome-Wide Search for Pleiotropic Genes Governing Vertebral Fractures (GWAS for Fractures)

### Start date: Aug 1, 2012, End date: Jul 31, 2016,

Vertebral fractures (VertFrx) are the most common osteoporotic fractures, with a prevalence of 30%-50% in people over age 50; these fractures are accompanied by severe consequences. Despite the enormous personal and public health impact of VertFrx, the underlying biologic mechanisms remain largely unknown. VertFrx are heritable, however, their genetics have not been systematically studied. We hyp ...

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## Computers Arguing with People (CAP)

### Start date: Jul 1, 2011, End date: Jun 30, 2016,

"An important form of negotiation is argumentation. This is the ability to argue and to persuade the other party to accept a desired agreement, to acquire or give information, to coordinate goals and actions, and to find and verify evidence. This is a key capability in negotiating with humans.While automated negotiations between software agents can often exchange offers and counteroffers, humans r ...

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## Corals and global warming: The Mediterranean versus the Red Sea (CoralWarm)

### Start date: Jun 1, 2010, End date: May 31, 2016,

CoralWarm will generate for the first time projections of temperate and subtropical coral survival by integrating sublethal temperature increase effects on metabolic and skeletal processes in Mediterranean and Red Sea key species. CoralWarm unique approach is from the nano- to the macro-scale, correlating molecular events to environmental processes. This will show new pathways to future investigat ...

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## Determination of the sensing and transcription mechanisms of bacterial metal sensors using pulsed EPR (METAL ION SENSORS)

### Start date: May 1, 2012, End date: Apr 30, 2016,

In this proposal, Dr. Ruthstein and her new group at the chemistry department in Bar-Ilan University, Israel, will determine the sensing and transcription mechanisms of metal ion sensors in bacteria. Metals are commonly found as natural constituents of proteins; however, many metal ions can be toxic when free in biological fluids. Hence, microorganisms have evolved considerable regulatory machiner ...

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## COHERENT OPTICS SENSORS FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS (COSMA)

### Start date: Apr 1, 2012, End date: Mar 31, 2016,

"The main objective of the project is to focus theoretical, experimental and clinical research of the participating groups on biomagnetism phenomena, with the specific aim to develop all-optical sensors dedicated to their detection and suitable for applications in clinical diagnostics.A central role in the project is played by Optical Atomic Magnetometers (OAMs) that have the potential, in terms o ...

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## Learning about Interacting Networks in Climate (LINC)

### Start date: Dec 1, 2011, End date: Nov 30, 2015,

Improving our understanding of the Earth’s climate phenomena, such as El Niño, has a huge economic and social impact for present and future generations, and can underpin advances in areas as diverse as energy, environment, agricultural, etc. There is a great shortage of qualified workforce to perform this task and a major challenge is the training of qualified researchers that can approach climate ...

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## Novel Composite Oxides by Combinatorial Material Synthesis for Next Generation All-Oxide-Photovoltaics (ALLOXIDEPV)

### Start date: Nov 1, 2012, End date: Oct 31, 2015,

The global market for photovoltaic (PV) cells that are converting sunlight into electricity almost doubled in 2010 to reach a massive 18.2 GW, nearly three times size of the market back in 2008. Crystalline silicon is the most common PV material today with a market share of more than 80%. New developments such as electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cells as well as organic polymer cells have ex ...

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## Testing and Correcting Programs with Applications to Codes (cortst-programs)

### Start date: May 1, 2011, End date: Sep 21, 2015,

One of the main challenges of software engineering is verifying the correctness of software. In this proposal we focus on correctness of the code per input rather than full program verification. This methodology associates with every function to be computed a new piece of code called a checker, which given any possibly buggy program for the function and an input, “checks” whether the program on th ...

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## Nanotechnology based cochlear implant with gapless interface to auditory neurons (NANOCI)

### Start date: Sep 1, 2012, End date: Aug 31, 2015,

Over 60 million of citizens in the EU suffer from hearing loss with its associated restrictions. In severe cases, hearing can only be restored by surgically implanting a neuroprosthesis called cochlear implant, which directly stimulates the auditory nerve.The bottleneck for optimal stimulation is caused by the anatomical gap between the electrode array and the auditory neurons in the inner ear. As ...

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## Role of cytosolic ascorbate-peroxidases (cAPXs) in heat stress (HS) perception and in systemic HS-signaling (cAPX in HS signaling)

### Start date: Sep 1, 2011, End date: Aug 31, 2015,

The heat stress (HS) response is a highly conserved response characterized primarily by rapid induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and is regulated by heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs). The HS response is also closely associated with accumulation reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage and acclimation of plants to elevated temperatures involves induction of activation of ROS sc ...

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## Cell Growth and Size Homeostasis in Proliferating Mammalian Cells (CellCycleGrowthSize)

### Start date: Aug 1, 2011, End date: Jul 31, 2015,

Cell size is central to cell function and ultimately to tissue architecture. Size reflects a balance between cell growth - steadily increase of size, and cytokinesis which halves the cell’s size on each division. How cells attain and maintain their size is a fundamental question that has fascinated generations of biologists, but the answer remains obscure. For proliferating cells growing in unvar ...