The challenge is to boost innovative and cost-efficient technologies and systems for railway signalling, and automated driving while, at the same time, achieving a level of safety consistent with methods and standards to be applicable in all railway segments.
In the framework of the technological developments foreseen within the Innovation Program 2 of Shift2Rail Master Plan, the specific challenge is to apply GNSS in safety railway applications, new train separation system (Moving Block) and automatic driving (ATO).
Scope: The aim of the work will be to improve technologies for signalling and automation investigating new applications and solutions that must be carefully analysed in terms of safety and in terms of performances. Insights from other fields, such as avionics or automotive, will also be necessary to exploit cutting edge technologies, scientific approaches and methodologies also in the railway environment.
The proposals should address all work streams described below, in line with the Shift2Rail Multi-Annual Action Plan (MAAP):
1. In the framework of the introduction of the GNSS technology into the ERTMS Signalling System, the activities are expected to cover the following points (linked to TD2.4):
a) Identification and description of the main navigation RTCA (Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics) assumptions that might not be valid in railways application domains;
b) Identification and description of the main navigation RTCA parameters that are applicable as they are or might be extended for being applied in railways application domains (e.g. Horizontal Position Accuracy, Navigation System Error, Satellite Residual Error for the Worst User Location, User Differential Range Error, Protection Level);
c) Quantitative analysis of the diagnostic capability of Standard Augmentation Subsystems (e.g. EGNOS) with regards to detection and mitigation of feared events originating from GNSS subsystem only (excluding local railways environment);
d) Hazard Analysis aimed at supporting the identification of the ERTMS hazards associated with GNSS faults, including possible mitigation strategies both in the GNSS domain and in the railways domain with specific investigation on the application of GNSS in the different Railway Market Segments due to their particular characteristics;
e) Execution of a Quantitative Comparative Analysis of different GNSS algorithms;
f) Verification of different GNSS algorithms by means of modelling both in nominal and abnormal conditions (e.g. in presence of specific fault injections);
g) Modelling of Multipath and Radio Frequency Interferences and identification / description of the main parameters that affects such local phenomena;
h) Definition of the GNSS Minimum Performance Requirements suitable for the Railways Domain also based on different railways mission operational profiles.
2. Perform the Hazard Analysis of the railway system (technical and operational) in view of the application of the Moving Block functionalities (linked to TD2.3). Specifically the activities should include:
a) The examination of the safety level of a Moving Block signalling system operating without trackside train detection;
b) The identification of the hazards in the most significant system operative conditions defined through use cases (e.g. initialization of the system, normal and failure operative conditions, recovery of the system from failure situations, mixed traffic, operational procedures to be applied in normal or degraded conditions according to the Grade of Automation (GoA) of the system, operational maintenance activities).
3. Identify the most suitable technology to be implemented in the railway field for performing automated driving (linked to TD2.2) coming from the automotive sector; specifically the activities should include:
a) Autonomous cars analysis: identification of technologies implemented on the trackside and on-board for performing automated driving. The analysis should include insights from automotive sector and assess the cutting edge technologies present on the market or coming from developments for application fields which can be different from the railway market. Identify the basic characteristics from the automotive sector that can be assumed valid for implementation in the railway field;
b) Assessment of the reusability of these technologies in railway field and identification of the types of applications (Operation Conditions) which are required in driverless or unattended operation.
4. Identify the most suitable semi-formal and/or formal language and formal method to be applied in the railway field (intended as the overall wayside and on board railway signalling system) (linked to TD2.7); specifically, referring to the results from previous projects (e.g.: Cesar, NeGST, Eurointerlocking, INESS, EULYNX), the activities should include:
a) Benchmarking of the languages and of the formal methodologies present on the market in terms of flexibility, usability, capability to provide system modelling, facilitate RAMS activities and testing;
b) Identify the ranking of the above languages and formal methods in the application in the railway field for all the main steps of the work process (e.g.: development, engineering, test and commissioning, operation and maintenance, training, update);
c) Provide the proof of the effectiveness of the selected set of formal method(s) and language(s) by means of using them for a defined application (e.g. IXL or on-board system design, configuration and testing);
d) Validate the capability of the selected set of formal method(s) and language(s) for supporting the evolution of ETCS/ERTMS respecting the basic requirements of interoperability.
The action that is expected to be funded under this topic will be complementary to the action that is expected to be funded under the topic S2R-CFM-IP2-01-2017: Enhancing Railway Signalling Systems thanks to applying satellite positioning; developing an on-board safe Train Integrity; applying formal methods approach and standardised interfaces, and enhancing Traffic Management System (TMS) functions.
The action expected to be funded from this topic will also be complementary to action carried out following the topic S2R-CFM-IP2-01-2015: Start-up activities for Advanced Signalling and Automation System.
As specified in section 2.3.1 of S2R AWP for 2017, in order to facilitate the contribution to the achievement of S2R objectives, the options regarding 'complementary grants' of the S2R Model Grant Agreement and the provisions therein, including with regard to additional access rights to background and results for the purposes of the complementary grant(s), will be enabled in the corresponding S2R Grant Agreements.
An indicative scheduling of the deliverables is suggested below43:
Deliverables of work stream 1 are expected to be available as specified below:
Deliverables of work stream 2 are expected to be available by M6.
Deliverables of work stream 3 are expected to be available by M6.
Deliverables of work stream 4 are expected to be available by M30.
The activities are expected to reach TRL3
Expected impacts: The activities are expected to contribute to:
Improving the basic knowledge in the field of GNSS, new signalling system (Moving Block) and automation. These fields are the key points in the evolution of signalling and automation in view of a full compliancy with ERTMS/ETCS standards and its future enhancement with new functionalities and with the application of new technologies.
Enhancing optimisation of the train control according to the real needs of traffic through automatic driving features, especially for the highest grade of automation (GoA4) whose application would lead to line capacity improvement, headway reduction, reduction of traction energy consumption and carbon emissions.
Standardise processes for system, product and standards’ development through well-defined formal languages, thus contributing to reduce overall CAPEX cost, improving interoperability and reliability of the system.
Specific metrics and methods to measure and achieve impacts should be included in the proposals, with the objective to achieve by the end of the S2R Programme the quantitative and qualitative targets defined in the S2R MAAP related to TD2.2, TD2.3, TD2.4 and TD2.7 in line with the relative planning and budget.
Type of Action: Research and Innovation Actions.