Inducibility of Resistance to Diseases via Seed Priming With Extrudates Origined From Resistant Plants (Extended Version 2)

Created on 13 Jul 2017

Ugur Sevilmis

Research Institute

Creator




A wide variety of fungi attempt to penetrate into plants, however, only a limited number of these interactions are successful.

Genetic variation in the expression of plant defence offers valuable insights into the evolution of these strategies.

Defence activation of disease sensitive varieties may be stimulated by chemicals or genetic materials from disease resistant varieties.

Seed priming with extrudates from resistant varieties may be used to establish an acquired immune deficiency.

Method imitates the effect of human vaccines.

Another target is to transfer this acquired immune knowledge to offspring.

This may boost organic farming due to elimination of diseases by step by step sequential acquired immune without a need for fungicides.

Agricultural science is totally concentrated on pesticides and breeding to overcome this.

New approaches to understand the molecular players associated with the pre-germinative metabolism is needed.

There are a lot of commercially useful traits not just in crops but also in non-crop plants.

We need to go beyond edibility of these resources.

Plants can be primed for more rapid and robust activation of defence to biotic or abiotic stress. Priming follows perception of molecular patterns of microbes or plants, recognition of pathogen-derived effectors or colonisation by beneficial microbes. However the process can also be induced by treatment with some natural or synthetic compounds and wounding. The primed mobilization of defence is often associated with development of immunity and stress tolerance. Although the phenomenon has been known for decades, the molecular basis of priming is poorly understood (Anup et al., 2015).

Seed priming is basically a physiological seed quality enhancement method which offers a hydration treatment that allows controlled imbibition and induction of the pre-germinative metabolism (activation), but radicle emergence is prevented.

We may use intensive or step-by-step approach to reach given targets.

In intensive approach, we need to make different soups of plant extracts obtained from different plant varieties' green foliage from resistant varieties/species.

This may be random or grouped under plant families or both.

Need genes to transcript required proteins in between required exDNA (need to stimulate immune system related genes).

At this stage we need to branch the trial in three:

1. Sterilisation of obtained extracts via chemicals to provide reciever enough time to digest and adopt to new information.

2. Continuing with the unsterilised extract soup.

3. Infecting donor (resistant) varieties/species with weakened disease.

A hard infection process will possibly give better result compared to soft infection before preparing an extract soup.

We know that even roots can uptake intact DNA from soil.

Need to shred the cells to release DNA and proteins for well prepared exctract soup.

Fractions of pure DNA introduced into soil or water can escape immediate degradation and persist for various periods of time (from hours to days) (Nielsen et al., 2007).

Also seed priming just with weakened pathogens might be tested.

Especially severe diseases like ones under quarentine control should be included in tests.

Different time intervals might be tested fro the duration of treatment.

Five levels of extract concentration (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) might be tested.

Powdery mildews are among the most common, conspicuous, and widespread plant diseases, and the losses in plant growth and yield among all crops combined attributable to this disease are possibly greater than the losses caused by any other single family of pathogens (Agrios, 1988). They seldom kill the host, but their drain of host nutrients causes increased respiration and transpiration and decreased photosynthesis, plant growth, and plant lines often express enhanced resistance.

Examples of resistances to diseases:

1. Resistance of Nicotiana spp. and Parsley to Phytophthora

2. Resistance of Parsley to Phytophthora

3. Resistance of red onion to Botrytis allii

4. Resistance of Arabidopsis to Magnaporthe oryzae f. sp. oryzae (rice blast disease)

5. Resistance of barley, wheat, cucumber and tobacco to Erysiphe pisi.

6. Resistance of Chloris gayana to R. reniformis

7. Resistance of Arabidopsis to grass powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei

8. Rootinfecting fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici is a wheat pathogen and is unable to infect oats; it produces the root-specific avenacins, a class of triterpene ;Saponins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom; however, it is not clear how broad a role they play in nonhost resistance Mysore & Ryu, 2004).

9. Arabidopsis can not be infected by cowpea rust fungus (Uromyces vignae).

10. N. benthamiana exhibits resistance against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

11. Arabidopsis is resistant to P. syringae pv. phaseolicola.

12. Resistance of barley to B. graminis f. sp. tritici

There are diversified tools to improve resistance: cytoskeleton, plant actin microfilaments, antimicrobial secondary metabolites (like saponins), phytoalexins, ethylene, salicylic acid, heat-shock proteins etc.

Because microbes co-evolve with radiating plant species during evolution (Heath, 1997; Inuma et al., 2007), we may expect that some plant species are currently in the process of losing or acquiring the host status to a certain microbial species, taking some intermediate position between host and nonhost status, as reported for barley in response to Puccinia rust fungi (Atienza et al., 2004).

Need to remove seed coat before imbibing.

Need to apply electroporation.

Electroporation, or electropermeabilization, is a microbiology technique in which an electrical field is applied to cells in order to increase the permeability of the cell membrane, allowing chemicals, drugs, or DNA to be introduced into the cell. In microbiology, the process of electroporation is often used to transform bacteria, yeast, or plant protoplasts by introducing new coding DNA.

Will use electroporation cuvettes.

Mature seeds will also be precultured one day prior to gene transfer.

Need to test different voltages, and current pulse numbers.

After electroporation, seeds will be incubated in germination buffer for a few days.

..to be continued ..


 Agriculture
 Biodiversity
 Genetic Resources
 Plant Health
 Natural Resources
 Chemicals
 Biology
 Astrophysics
 Research

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