Search for European Projects

22 European Projects Found

Searched on 125080 European Projects

 ONGOING 
Functional-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has transformed our understanding of brain function due to its ability to noninvasively tag ‘active’ brain regions. Nevertheless, fMRI only detects neural activity indirectly, by relying on slow hemodynamic couplings whose relationships with underlying neural activity are not fully known. We have recently pioneered two unique MR approaches: Non-Uniform ...
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 1

 ONGOING 

New therapies for uveal melanoma (UM Cure 2020)

Start date: Jan 1, 2016, End date: Dec 31, 2020,

Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare intraocular tumour with an incidence of 5 cases per million individuals per year. Up to 50% of UM patients develop metastases, most often in the liver, and these are invariably fatal. Despite new discoveries in the genetic and molecular background of the primary tumour, little is known about the metastatic disease; furthermore, there is no therapy to either prevent or ...
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 13

 ONGOING 
Serotonin (5-HT) is a central neuromodulator and a major target of therapeutic psychoactive drugs, but relatively little is known about how it modulates information processing in neural circuits. The theory of predictive coding postulates that the brain combines raw bottom-up sensory information with top-down information from internal models to make perceptual inferences about the world. We hypoth ...
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 1

 FINISHED 
A remarkable aspect of motor control is our seemingly effortless ability to generate coordinated movements. How is activity within neural circuits orchestrated to allow us to engage in complex activities like gymnastics, riding a bike, or walking down the street while drinking a cup of coffee? The cerebellum is critical for coordinated movement, and the well-described, stereotyped circuitry of the ...
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 FINISHED 
"Chunking allows the brain to efficiently organize memories and actions. Although basal ganglia circuits have been implicated in action chunking, little is known about how individual elements are concatenated into a behavioral unit at the neuronal level. Using a differential reinforcement procedure where mice learn to chunk rapid action sequences, we uncovered neuronal activity encoding entire seq ...
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 FINISHED 

Dissecting specific amygdala-striatal circuits for exploration (DASCE)

Start date: Sep 1, 2017, End date: Aug 31, 2019,

Survival and adaptation are dependent on an animal's ability to gain novel information in unfamiliar surroundings. Similar to other animal classes, mammals must use a variety of innate and learned exploratory strategies that are dictated by unpredictable or unknown circumstances. As the combination of emotional processes and planning of complex actions are essential for the development of such str ...
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 1

 FINISHED 

Circuits of con-specific observation (C.o.C.O.)

Start date: Dec 1, 2013, End date: Nov 30, 2018,

A great deal is known about the neural basis of associative fear learning. However, many animal species are able to use social cues to recognize threats, a defence mechanism that may be less costly than learning from self-experience. We have previously shown that rats perceive the cessation of movement-evoked sound as a signal of danger and its resumption as a signal of safety. To study transmissi ...
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 1

 FINISHED 

Human Brain Project Specific Grant Agreement 1 (HBP SGA1)

Start date: Apr 1, 2016, End date: Mar 31, 2018,

Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time. Such an understanding can provide profound insights into our humanity, leading to fundamentally new computing technologies, and transforming the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. Modern ICT brings this prospect within reach. The HBP Flagship Initiative (HBP) thus proposes a unique strategy that uses I ...
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 126

 FINISHED 
Non-invasive Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI) bring great promise for neuro-rehabilitation and neuro-prosthesis, as well as for brain control of everyday devices and performance of simple tasks. Over the last 15 years the interest in BMIs has grown substantially, and a variety of interfaces have been developed. The field has been growing dramatically, and market studies reveal an estimated market si ...
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 FINISHED 

Neural bases of visually guided walking in the fly (SensorimotorFly)

Start date: Sep 1, 2013, End date: Aug 31, 2017,

Knowing how to get to a food source, approximate towards conspecifics or avoid a predator, are orientation behaviours with remarkable consequence for the success of an individual and the fitness of the species. They all depend on the brain’s ability to process sensory stimuli and integrate this with ongoing behaviour to generate spatial information that guides actions. Although much is known about ...
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 FINISHED 
"How does the accuracy of sensory representations constrain the ability of the organism to perform perceptual discriminations? In this project, we will address this issue by characterizing the activity of populations of neurons in the rat auditory cortex while they perform a two-alternative forced-choice discrimination task for detecting sound location relative to the midline. We will first establ ...
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 1

 FINISHED 
Functional-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has transformed our understanding of brain function due to its ability to noninvasively tag ‘active’ brain regions. Nevertheless, fMRI only detects neural activity indirectly, by relying on slow hemodynamic couplings whose relationships with underlying neural activity are not fully known. We have recently pioneered two unique MR approaches: Non-Uniform ...
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 1

 FINISHED 
"Given the complexity of the neocortex, the need for establishing simplifying principles of connectivity is paramount. Local cortical circuits form stereotyped connections across the neocortex. Within a cortical column, connections show laminar specificity and target preferentially particular cell-types while avoiding others. In addition, subnetworks of highly interconnected neurons are embedded i ...
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 1

 FINISHED 
Most cognitive functions are based on computations that take place in the cerebral cortex, composed of a larger number of areas, each with a complex anatomical structure, with neurons of different types and in different layers interacting according to a precise scheme. The anatomical organization of cortical areas is similar, with some modulation according to its sensory, motor or associative func ...
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 11

 FINISHED 

The Human Brain Project (HBP)

Start date: Oct 1, 2013, End date: Sep 30, 2016,

Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest challenges facing 21st century science. If we can rise to the challenge, we can gain profound insights into what makes us human, develop new treatments for brain diseases and build revolutionary new computing technologies. Today, for the first time, modern ICT has brought these goals within sight. The goal of the Human Brain Project, part of the ...
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 116

 FINISHED 
We are constantly inundated with a barrage of sensory information. At any given instant, however, only a small key fraction of this sensory world is relevant for taking action. Our brains must select out the critical input and use it to guide behavioral response. We often call this selection process attention.A field mouse, for example, scurrying through the grass scanning for delicious morsels at ...
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 1

 FINISHED 
Serotonin (5-HT) is implicated in a wide spectrum of brain functions and disorders. However, its functions remain controversial and enigmatic. We suggest that past work on the 5-HT system have been significantly hampered by technical limitations in the selectivity and temporal resolution of the conventional pharmacological and electrophysiological methods that have been applied. We therefore propo ...
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 2

 FINISHED 
Understanding how the brain works represents one of the greatest challenges in modern science. This question embraces mechanisms spanning multiple levels of description, from genes to biochemical pathways, from neurons to circuits, from circuit activities to adaptive behaviours. The goal of the FLiACT programme is to train young researchers in the concepts and techniques necessary to study integra ...
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 11

 FINISHED 

Neural Circuits Underlying Visually Guided Behaviour (FISHBRAIN)

Start date: Sep 1, 2011, End date: Aug 31, 2015,

"A fundamental goal of neuroscience is to understand how information processing in neural circuits gives rise to behavior. Even the simplest actions can involve hundreds of neurons distributed throughout the brain. However, for most behaviors, little is known about which neurons play an important role, how they are organized into circuits, or how activity is transformed between different brain ...
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 FINISHED 
In every day life, we constantly have to select the appropriate actions to obtain specific outcomes. Actions can be selected based on their consequences, for example when we press an elevator button to get to the particular floor where we live. This goal-directed behaviour is crucial to face the ever-changing environment but demands an effortful control and monitoring of the response; one way to b ...
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 FINISHED 
"Several studies have revealed that the activity of neurons is sufficiently capable of providing enough data to enable the control of an electronic device using solely signals provided by the brain. Project BRAINFLIGHT proposes the application of this kind of control in the world of aircraft, to enable people to control aircraft using only neural signals emitted from their brain. This kind of appr ...
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 FINISHED 
"I am interested in understanding how sensory percepts lead to behavior. Olfaction is one of the most dominant senses across many organisms. For rodents, the sense of smell is particularly crucial. The context in which odors are experienced is a not only a critical component in decoding the behavioral significance of the odors but also powerfully influences their perceptual qualities. The neural m ...
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