Search for European Projects

Over 40 European Projects Found

Searched on 125080 European Projects

 ONGOING 
"Sixty percent of the human body consists of water. Water provides the 3D-network for life’s constituents. In a cell there are many interfaces: the average distance between two molecules or a molecule and a membrane interfaces is ~1 nm. Water and the interfaces it interacts with are of paramount importance for biological processes. The structural, dynamic, and biological properties of water, aqueo ...
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Adversary-Oriented Computing (AOC)

Start date: Jun 1, 2014, End date: May 31, 2019,

"Recent technological evolutions, including the cloud, the multicore, the social and the mobiles ones, are turning computing ubiquitously distributed. Yet, building high-assurance distributed programs is notoriously challenging. One of the main reasons is that these systems usually seek to achieve several goals at the same time. In short, they need to be efficient, responding effectively in variou ...
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Virtually every species of insect harbors facultative bacterial endosymbionts that are transmitted from females to their offspring, often in the egg cytoplasm. These symbionts play crucial roles in the biology of their hosts. Many manipulate host reproduction in order to spread within host populations. Others increase the fitness of their hosts under certain conditions. For example, increasing tol ...
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In physiological situations, the extracellular matrix (ECM) sequesters cytokines, localizes them, and modulates their signaling. Thus, physiological signaling from cytokines occurs primarily when the cytokines are interacting with the ECM. In therapeutic use of cytokines, however, this interaction and balance have not been respected; rather the growth factors are merely injected or applied as solu ...
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Transforming Raw Data into Information through Virtualization (ViDa)

Start date: May 1, 2014, End date: Apr 30, 2019,

The unprecedented evolution of computing power, combined with the decreasing costs of computation and storage infrastructure, has revolutionized all scientific fields and enterprises; at the heart of this revolution is the ability to collect unprecedented amounts of data. Real progress, however, depends on how efficiently we can ‘extract value from chaos’, i.e., process the collected data and tran ...
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Dissecting the mechanisms governing centriole formation (CENFOR)

Start date: Apr 1, 2014, End date: Mar 31, 2019,

"Centrioles are critical for the formation of cilia, flagella and centrosomes, as well as for human health. The mechanisms governing centriole formation constitute a long-standing question in cell biology. We will pursue an innovative multidisciplinary research program to gain further insight into these mechanisms, using human cells, C. elegans and Trichonympha as model systems. This program is ex ...
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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular organelle of mammalian cells. It fulfills major functions such as folding and quality control of membrane proteins, lipid biosynthesis, calcium storage, and modulation of apoptosis. This diversity of functions is accompanied by a complex 3D architecture, the maintenance of which is essential, since alterations lead to disease. How this ar ...
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Predictive Computational Metallurgy (PreCoMet)

Start date: Feb 1, 2014, End date: Jan 31, 2019,

Why is there no “Moore’s Law” for the creation of stronger and more durable metals? Because there is a unique complexity to mechanical properties of metals: the strength, hardening, embrittlement, fracture, and fatigue are controlled by multi-defect interactions (dislocations/solutes/precipitates/grain boundaries). However, such multi-defect interactions are beyond the scope of analytical elasti ...
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"As cities grow rapidly and more people through different modes compete for limited urban road infrastructure to travel, it is important to manage traffic space to improve accessibility for travelers. This project tackles the problem of modeling and optimization in large-scale congested traffic networks with an aggregated realistic representation of dynamics and route choice and multiple modes of ...
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One of the most exciting areas of theoretical computer science is to understand the approximability of fundamental optimization problems. A prominent example is the traveling salesman problem, for which a long-standing conjecture states that a certain algorithm gives a better guarantee than current methods can prove. The resolution of this conjecture and of many other fundamental problems is intim ...
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"Against the backdrop of an ever-expanding world population and increasingly limited resources, progress in chemistry, and organic chemistry in particular, is essential for the future of humanity. In the last century, transition metal chemistry has completely changed the field of synthesis. Nevertheless, it is often based on rare and toxic metals. Traditional organic chemistry, on the other hand, ...
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Crystal Engineering for Molecular Organic Semiconductors (CEMOS)

Start date: Jan 1, 2014, End date: Dec 31, 2018,

"The urgent need to develop inexpensive and ubiquitous solar energy conversion cannot be overstated. Solution processed organic semiconductors can enable this goal as they support drastically less expensive fabrication techniques compared to traditional semiconductors. Molecular organic semiconductors (MOSs) offer many advantages to their more-common pi-conjugated polymer counterparts, however a c ...
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Acquisition of the hallmark capability for invasion and in turn metastasis is for most human cancers the defining event in progression to life threatening disease. Its determinants are remarkably complex. Genetically engineered mice can model human cancers, with tumors arising in specific organs, reflecting onco-genomic and histopathological features of particular tumor types. This project will ...
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This proposal situated at the interfaces of the microengineering, biological and medical fields aims to develop microfluidic chips for studying living roundworms (Caenorhabditis elegans), living cultured liver tissue slices obtained from mice, and formaldehyde/paraffin-fixed human breast cancer tissue slices and tumors. Each type of microfluidic chip will be the central component of a computer-con ...
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The “École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne” (EPFL) is one of the two Écoles Polytechniques Fédérales in Switzerland. The School is ranked as one of Europe’s top research institutions with respect to education, research and training-through-research, and offers young researcher several mobility programmes to encourage them to exert the researcher profession, to guide them in their career develop ...
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Arithmetic and physics of Higgs moduli spaces (ARIPHYHIMO)

Start date: Apr 1, 2013, End date: Mar 31, 2018,

The proposal studies problems concerning the geometry and topology of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles on a Riemann surface motivated by parallel considerations in number theory and mathematical physics. In this way the proposal bridges various duality theories in string theory with the Langlands program in number theory.The heart of the proposal is a circle of precise conjectures relating to the to ...
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Consequences of helminth-bacterial interactions (COhABIT)

Start date: Apr 1, 2013, End date: Mar 31, 2018,

"Throughout evolution both intestinal helminths and commensal bacteria have inhabited our intestines. This ""ménage à trois"" situation is likely to have exerted a strong selective pressure on the development of our metabolic and immune systems. Such pressures remain in developing countries, whilst the eradication of helminths in industrialized countries has shifted this evolutionary balance—possi ...
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"This proposal advocates a fundamentally new approach to achieving software quality: remove the distinction between software use and software testing -- enable programs to accumulate experience from each one of their executions, and leverage this experience toward self-improvement of the software. My hypothesis is that every program execution has information by-products that, if suitably captured ...
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"The etiologic agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries or following environmental disasters. The watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera results from the action of bacterial virulence determinants, notably cholera toxin, which gene has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. V. cholerae as a facultative p ...
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"The middle-infrared (Mid-IR) is a core band for molecular detection and identification as nearly every molecule strongly absorbs in this wavelength range. Hence, it hosts critical applications ranging from spectroscopy, health monitoring, sensing as well as free space communication. Unfortunately, the advantages of this wavelength range have not been fully exploited due to the lack of Mid-IR sour ...
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Surface Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy (Hi-SENS)

Start date: Jan 1, 2013, End date: Dec 31, 2017,

The ability to determine molecular structures from single crystals by diffraction methods has transformed science. However, if the system under investigation is located at a surface, the problem of structure elucidation is largely unsolved. Due to the increasing frequency with which such samples are encountered, particularly in the area of new materials for energy and catalysis, there is a critica ...
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Polynomial term structure models (POLYTE)

Start date: Dec 1, 2012, End date: Nov 30, 2017,

"The term structure of interest rates plays a central role in the functioning of the interbank market. It also represents a key factor for the valuation and management of long term liabilities, such as pensions. The financial crisis has revealed the multivariate risk nature of the term structure, which includes inflation, credit and liquidity risk, resulting in multiple spread adjusted discount cu ...
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Smart Building Networks (BuildNet)

Start date: Dec 1, 2012, End date: Nov 30, 2017,

The Smart Building Networks (BuildNet) program will develop optimizing controllers capable of coordinating the flow of power to and from large networks of smart buildings in order to offer critical services to the power grid. The network will make use of the thermal storage of the structures and on-site micro generation capabilities of next-generation buildings, as well as the electrical capacity ...
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Short summary:The ability to measure structures with nanoscale resolution continues to transform physics, materials science and life science alike. Nevertheless, while there are excellent tools to obtain detailed molecular-level static structure (for example in biology), there are very few tools to develop an understanding of how these structures change dynamically as they fulfill their biologica ...
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The field of electronics has been a veritable powerhouse of the economy, driving technological breakthroughs that affect all aspects of everyday life. Aside from silicon, there has been growing interest in developing a novel generation of electronic devices based on pi-conjugated polymers and oligomers. While their goal is not to exceed the performance of silicon technologies, they could enable fa ...
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Implicit Programming (IMPRO)

Start date: Dec 1, 2012, End date: Nov 30, 2017,

"I propose implicit programming, a paradigm for developing reliable software using new programming language specification constructs and tools, supported through the new notion of software synthesis procedures. The paradigm will enable developers to use specifications as executable programming language constructs and will automate some of the program construction tasks to the point where they beco ...
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Probing organ-level stem cell dynamics on a chip (STEMCHIP)

Start date: Dec 1, 2012, End date: Nov 30, 2017,

"More than 30’000 patients with hematological malignancies greatly benefit from hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplants each year in Europe alone. However, availability of transplant material for afflicted patients, prognosis, and relapse-free survival are all hindered by the limited quantity of HSCs available for therapy. Despite several decades of research, HSC cannot be cultured in vitro with ...
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Using recent progress in laser technology and in particular in the field of ultra-fast lasers, we are getting close to accomplish the alchemist dream of transforming materials. Compact lasers can generate pulses with ultra-high peak powers in the Tera-Watt or even Peta-Watt ranges. These high-power pulses lead to a radically different laser-matter interaction than the one obtained with conventiona ...
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As evolutionary biologists we are of course motivated by the desire to gain further insight in to the evolution of natural populations. The main goals of this proposal are to (i) develop theory and methodology that will enable the identification of adaptively evolving genomic regions using polymorphism data, (ii) develop theory and methodology for the estimation of whole-genome rates of adaptive e ...
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"Topological insulators are the recently discovered class of materials that have a bulk electronic band gap, but also exhibit conducting surface states as a result of non-trivial band structure topology induced by strong spin-orbit interactions. These peculiar surface states are characterized by a number of novel properties such as graphene-like band dispersion and helical spin textures with no sp ...
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Synaptic Mechanisms of Cortical Sensorimotor Integration (SENSORIMOTOR)

Start date: May 1, 2012, End date: Apr 30, 2017,

"Animals actively acquire sensory information. Incoming sensory signals must therefore be processed in the context of self-generated motor commands in order to generate useful sensory percepts. Equally, sensory information is an essential guide during movement. The neuronal circuits and synaptic mechanisms underlying sensorimotor integration in the mammalian brain are currently poorly understood.T ...
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Our ambition is to probe the strength of “second” phases in multiphase metal alloys and composites, meaning of hard particles added to strengthen a metal, or alternatively of brittle inclusions that weaken it. Such phases are ubiquitous in structural metals; yet not much is known of the microstructural features that govern their strength.The underlying hypothesis of this project is that defects th ...
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Manipulation of trapped quantum polariton fluids (POLARITRONICS)

Start date: Feb 1, 2012, End date: Jan 31, 2017,

"Despite their incredibly short lifetime, around a few picoseconds only, it has now been amply demonstrated that polaritons may undergo Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) and such quantum fluids have demonstrated very interesting properties such as superfluidity. This project aims at introducing a new paradigm in solid-state physics trough the manipulation of polaritons quantum fluids and condensate ...
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Tumors often engage the lymphatic system to invade and metastasize. The tumor-draining lymph node (dLN) may be an immune privileged site that protects the tumor from host immunity, and lymph flow draining tumors is often increased, enhancing communication between the tumor and the sentinel node. In addition to increasing transport of tumor antigens and regulatory cytokines to the lymph node, incr ...
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A critical technological challenge for emerging information systems is to acquire, analyze and learn from the ever-increasing high-dimensional data produced by natural and man-made phenomena. Sampling, streaming, and recoding of even the most basic applications now produce a data deluge that severely stresses the available analog-to-digital converter, digital communication and storage resources, a ...
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Scalable Bayesian Methods for Machine Learning and Imaging (SCALABIM)

Start date: Jan 1, 2012, End date: Dec 31, 2016,

Machine learning seeks to automatize the processing oflarge complex datasets by adaptive computing, a core strategy to meet growingdemands of science and applications.Typically, real-world problems are mapped to penalized estimation tasks (e.g.,binary classification), which are solved by simple efficient algorithms. Whilesuccessful so far, I believe this approach is too limited torealise the poten ...
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Distributed systems form the foundation of our society's infrastructure. Unfortunately, they suffer from a number of problems. First, they are time-consuming to develop because it is difficult for the programmer to envision all possible deployment environments and design adaptation mechanisms that will achieve high performance in all scenarios. Second, the code is complex due to the numerous outco ...
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Simulation of droplets in complex microchannels (SIMCOMICS)

Start date: Jan 1, 2012, End date: Dec 31, 2016,

"In droplet-based microfluidics, the elementary units transporting reagents from one functional site to another (mixer, sensor or analyzer) are droplets, which are carried by an inert wetting fluid. This research project aims at the development of numerical models of flowing droplets in thin spatially extended microchannels, designed at avoiding the exponential complexity of parallelized 1-D netwo ...
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Foundations of Algebraic and Dynamic Data Management Systems (ALGILE)

Start date: Jan 1, 2012, End date: Dec 31, 2016,

"Contemporary database query languages are ultimately founded on logic and feature an additive operation – usually a form of (multi)set union or disjunction – that is asymmetric in that additions or updates do not always have an inverse. This asymmetry puts a greater part of the machinery of abstract algebra for equation solving outside the reach of databases. However, such equation solving would ...
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"Health and sustainability are the grand-challenges the world faces in the XXI century. The recent progress in science and technology allows now considering these prioritized directions of humanity development at the molecular level. Mass spectrometry is a key analytical technique in receiving the required molecular information from minute amounts of samples present in the gas, solid or liquid pha ...
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